This is an AORIST MIDDLE INDICATIVE which emphasized the subject's decisive choice. This focused on the Father's choice before time. God's choice must not be understood in the Islamic sense of determinism nor in the ultra Calvinistic sense of "God chooses some versus God did not choose others," but in a covenantal sense. God promised to redeem fallen mankind (cf. Gen. 3:15). God called and chose Abraham to choose all humans (cf. Gen. 12:3; Exod. 19:5-6). God Himself elected all persons who would exercise faith in Christ. God always takes the initiative in salvation (cf. John 6:44, 65). Ephesians 1:4 and Rom. 8:28-30; 9:1-33 are the main NT texts for the doctrine of predestination emphasized by Augustine and Calvin.

God chose believers not only to salvation (justification) but also to sanctification (cf. Col. 1:12)! This could relate to

  1. our position in Christ (cf. 2 Cor. 5:21)
  2. God's desire to reproduce His character in His children (cf. Eph. 2:10; Rom. 8:28-29; Gal. 4:19; 1 Thess. 4:3)

God's will for His children is both heaven one day and Christlikeness now!

The PRONOUNS in this passage are ambiguous. Most refer to God the Father. This whole passage speaks of His love, purpose, and plan to redeem fallen mankind. However, in context it is obvious that the PRONOUNS in Eph. 1:7, 9, 13, 14 refer to Jesus.

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