Ephod (BDB 65, KB 77) originally referred to a tight fitting, linen, priestly garment (e.g., 1 Sam. 2:18; 22:18). A special one was worn by the High Priest (e.g., Exod. 25:7; 28:6-35). The Urim and Thummim were kept in a pouch behind the breastpiece, which was attached to the front of the ephod (cf. Exod. 28:30).

The ephod was a visual sign of YHWH's priests. It was used in an attempt to legitimize unlawful shrines, sanctuaries, and priests (e.g., Jdgs. 8:27; 17:5; 18:14,17,18,20). Possibly a life-sized idol was draped with an elaborate cloak. This, then, would imply the person of divine revelation (an oracle or Urim and Thummim).


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