SPECIAL TOPIC: THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD

I. Old Testament

A. There is a sense that God is father by means of creation.

1. Gen. 1:26-27

2. Mal. 2:10

3. Acts 17:28

B. Father is an analogy used in several senses.

1. father of Israel (by election)

a. "Son" – Exod. 4:22; Deut. 14:1; Isa. 1:2; 63:16; 64:8; Jer. 3:19; 31:9,20; Hosea 1:10; 11:1; Mal. 1:6

b. "firstborn" – Jer. 31:9

2. father of the king of Israel (Messianic)

a. 2 Sam. 7:11-16

b. Ps. 2:7; Acts 13:33; Heb. 1:5; 5:5

c. Hosea 11:1; Matt. 2:15

3. analogy of loving parent

a. father (metaphor)

(1) carries his son – Deut. 1:31

(2) disciplines – Deut. 8:5; Pro. 3:12

(3) provides (i.e., Exodus) – Deut. 32:6,10

(4) will never forsake – Ps. 27:10

(5) loves – Ps. 103:13

(6) friend/guide – Jer. 3:4

(7) healer/forgiver – Jer. 3:22

(8) mercy giver – Jer. 31:20

(9) trainer – Hosea 11:1-4

(10) special son – Mal. 3:17

b. mother (metaphor)

(1) will never forsake – Ps. 27:10

(2) love of a nursing mother – Isa. 49:15; 66:9-13 and Hosea 11:4 (with the proposed textual emendation of "yoke" to "infant")

II. New Testament

A. The Trinity (texts where all three are mentioned)

1. Gospels

a. Matt. 3:16-17; 28:19

b. John 14:26

2. Paul

a. Rom. 1:4-5; 5:1,5; 8:1-4,8-10

b. 1 Cor. 2:8-10; 12:4-6

c. 2 Cor. 1:21-22; 13:14

d. Gal. 4:4-6

e. Eph. 1:3-14,17; 2:18; 3:14-17; 4:4 

f. 1 Thess. 1:2-5

g. 2 Thess. 2:13

h. Titus 3:4-6

3. Peter – 1 Pet. 1:2

4. Jude – vv. 20-21

B. Jesus

1. Jesus as "only begotten" – John 1:18; 3:16,18; 1 John 4:9

2. Jesus as "Son of God" – Matt. 4:3; 14:33; 16:16; Luke 1:32,35; John 1:34,49; 6:69; 11:27

3. Jesus as Beloved Son – Matt. 3:17; 17:5

4. Jesus' use of abba for God – Mark 14:36

5. Jesus' use of pronouns to show both His and our relationship to God

a. "My Father," e.g., John 5:18; 10:30,33; 19:7; 20:17

b. "your Father," e.g., Matt. 5:16,45,48; 6:1,4,6,8,14,15,18,26,32; 7:11; 10:20,29; 18:14

c. "our Father," e.g., Matt. 6:9,14,26

C. One of many family metaphors to describe the intimate relationship between God and humankind:

1. God as Father

2. Believers as

a. sons of God 

b. children 

c. born of God 

d. born again

e. adopted

f. brought forth

g. family of God 

 

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