This is the term prognosis (to know before), used only in Acts 2:23 and 1 Pet. 1:2. This concept of God's knowing all of human history ahead of time is difficult for us to reconcile with human free will. God is an eternal, spiritual Being who is not limited by temporal sequence. Although He controls and shapes history, humans are responsible for their motives and acts in time (see Special Topic: Covenant). Foreknowledge does not affect God's love and election. If so, then it would be conditional on future human effort and merit. God is sovereign and He has chosen that His Covenant followers have some freedom of choice in responding to Him (cf. John 1:12; 3:16; Rom. 8:29; 1 Pet. 1:20).

There are two extremes in this area of theology:

1. freedom pushed too far: some say God does not know the future choices and actions of humans (i.e., Open Theism, which is a philosophical extension of Process Thought)

2. sovereignty pushed too far, which becomes God choosing some to heaven and some to hell (supralapsarianism, double-edged Calvinism)

3. I prefer Psalm 139!

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