SPECIAL TOPIC: KINGS OF GREECE
A. 359-336 Philip II of Macedon:
1. built up Greece
2. assassinated in 336 b.c.
B. 336-323 Alexander II "the Great" (Philip's son):
1. routed Darius II, the Persian king, at the battle of Isus
2. died in 323 b.c. in Babylon of a fever at 32/33 yrs. of age
3. Alexander's generals divided his empire at his death:
a. Cassender – Macedonia and Greece
b. Lysimicus – Thrace
c. Seleucus I – Syria and Babylon
d. Ptolemy – Egypt and Palestine
e. Antigonus – Asia Minor (He did not last long)
C. Seleucids vs. Ptolemies for control of Palestine:
1. Syria (Seleucid Rulers):
a. 312-280 Seleucus I
b. 280-261 Antiochus I Soter
c. 261-146 Antiochus II Theus
d. 246-226 Seleucus II Callinicus
e. 226-223 Seleucus III Ceraunus
f. 223-187 Antiochus III the Great
g. 187-175 Seleucus IV Philopator
h. 175-163 Antiochus IV Epiphanes
i. 163-162 Antiochus V
j. 162-150 Demetrius I
2. Egyptian (Ptolemaic Rulers):
a. 327-285 Ptolemy I Soter
b. 285-246 Ptolemy II Philadelphus
c. 246-221 Ptolemy III Evegetes
d. 221-203 Ptolemy IV Philopator
e. 203-181 Ptolemy V Epiphanes
f. 181-146 Ptolemy VI Philometor
3. Brief Survey:
a. 301- Palestine under Ptolemy rule for 181 years.
b. 175-163 Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the eighth Seleucid ruler, wanted to Hellenize Jews by force, if necessary:
(1) constructed gymnasiums
(2) constructed pagan altars of Zeus Olympius in the Temple
c. 168 - December 13 – hog slain on the altar in Jerusalem by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Some consider this to be "the abomination of desolation" in Daniel 8.
d. 167 - Mattathias, priest in Modin, and sons rebel. The best known of his sons was Judas Maccabeas, "Judas the Hammer."
e. 165 - December 25 – Temple rededicated. This is called Hanukkah or "Festival of Lights."
For a good discussion of the dating problems, procedures and presuppositions see The Expositors Bible Commentary, vol. 4 pp. 10-17.
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