1. 703-? Merodach-Baladan

    - Started several revolts against Assyrian rule

  2. 652 Shamash-shum-ukin:
    1. Esarhaddon's son and Assurbanipal's brother
    2. he started a revolt against Assyria but was defeated

  3. 626-605 Nabopolassar:
    1. was the first monarch of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
    2. he attacked Assyria from the south while Cyaxares of Media attacked from the northeast
    3. the old Assyrian capital of Asshur fell in 614 and the powerful new capital of Nineveh fell in 612 B.C.
    4. the remnant of the Assyrian army retreated to Haran. They even installed a king.
    5. In 608 Pharaoh Necho II (cf. II Kings 23:29) marched north to help the remnant of the Assyrian army for the purpose of forming a buffer zone against the rising power of Babylon. Josiah, the godly king of Judah (cf. II Kings 23), opposed the movement of the Egyptian army through Palestine. There was a minor skirmish at Megiddo. Josiah was wounded and died (II Kgs. 23:29-30). His son, Jehoahaz, was made king. Pharaoh Necho II arrived too late to stop the destruction of the Assyrian forces at Haran. He engaged the Babylonian forces commanded by the crown prince Nebuchadnezzar II and was soundly defeated in 605 B.C. at Carchemesh on the Euphrates River.

      On his way back to Egypt Pharaoh Necho stopped at Jerusalem and sacked the city. He replaced and deported Jehoahaz after only three months. He put another son of Josiah, Jehoiakim, on the throne (cf. II Kings 23:31-35).

    6. Nebuchadnezzar II chased the Egyptian army south through Palestine but he received word of his father's death and returned to Babylon to be crowned. Later, in the same year, he returned to Palestine. He left Jehoiakim on the throne of Judah but exiled several thousand of the leading citizens and several members of the royal family. Daniel and his friends were part of this deportation.

  4. 605-562 - Nebuchadnezzar II:
    1. From 597-538 Babylon was in complete control of Palestine.
    2. In 597 another deportation from Jerusalem occurred because of Jehoakim's alliance with Egypt (II Kings 24). He died before the arrival of Nebuchadnezzar II. His son Jehoiachin was only king for three months when he was exiled to Babylon. Ten thousand citizens, including Ezekiel, were resettled close to the City of Babylon by the Canal Kebar.
    3. In 586, after continued flirtation with Egypt, the City of Jerusalem was completely destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (II Kgs. 25) and a mass deportation occurred. Zedekiah, who replaced Jehoiachin, was exiled and Gedaliah was appointed governor.
    4. Gedaliah was killed by Jewish renegade military forces. These forces fled to Egypt and forced Jeremiah to go with them. Nebuchadnezzar invaded a fourth time (605, 596, 586, 582) and deported all remaining Jews that he could find.

  5. 562-560 - Evil-merodach, Nebuchadnezzar's son, was also known as Amel-Marduk (Akkadian, "Man of Marduk")

    - He released Jehoiakim from prison but he had to remain in Babylon (cf. II Kings 25:27-30; Jer. 52:31).

  6. 560-556 - Neriglissar

    - He assassinated Evil-merodach, who was his brother-in-law

    - He was previously Nebuchadnezzar's general who destroyed Jerusalem (cf. Jer. 39:3,13)

  7. 556 - Labaski-Marduk

    - He was Neriglissar's son who assumed kingship as a boy, but was assassinated after only nine months (Berossos).

  8. 556-539 - Nabonidus (Akkadian, "Nebo is exalted"):
    1. Nabonidus was not related to the royal house so he married a daughter of Nebuchadnezzar
    2. He spent most of the time building a temple to the moon god "Sin" in Tema. He was the son of the high priestess of this goddess. This earned him the enmity of the priests of Marduk, chief god of Babylon.
    3. He spent most of his time trying to put down revolts (in Syria and north Africa) and stabilize the kingdom.
    4. He moved to Tema and left the affairs of state to his son, Belshazzar, in the capital, Babylon (cf. Dan.5).

  9. ? - 539 - Belshazzar (co-reign)

    - The city of Babylon fell very quickly to the Persian Army under Gobryas of Gutium by diverting the waters of the Euphrates and entering the city unopposed. The priests and people of the city saw the Persians as liberators and restorers of Marduk. Gobryas was made Governor of Babylon by Cyrus II. Gobryas may have been the Darius the Mede of Dan. 5:31; 6:1. "Darius" means "royal one."

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