SPECIAL TOPIC: BRIEF OUTLINE OF HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS TO PERSIAN KINGS
A. The rebuilding of the temple was approved and subsidized by Cyrus II, Ezra 4:1-5.
B. Letter of accusation from the leaders of the Province Beyond the River to Ahasuerus about rebuilding the walls of the city of Jerusalem (Xerxes I, 486-465 b.c.), Ezra 4:6.
C. Letter of accusation from the leaders of the Province Beyond the River to Artaxerxes (I Longimanus, 465-424 b.c.) about rebuilding of the walls of the city of Jerusalem, Ezra 4:7-23. It is possible to see Ezra 4:7 as separate from 4:8 because the names are different (cf. Kidner, Tyndale Commentary Series, p. 51). If so, it marks a separate legal attempt. However, it could simply be that different officials are involved.
D. Darius I (Hystaspes, 523-486 b.c.), which was the time of Haggai and Zechariah, is mentioned specifically in Ezra 4:5b and 24. The temple was started in about 520 and finished in 516 b.c.
E. Ezra 4 is a summary of the opposition (both to the temple and the walls of Jerusalem) from the local people group to the returning Jews rebuilding.
1. Ezra 4:1-5,24 refer to the temple
2. Ezra 4:6-23 refers to the walls of Jerusalem
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