SPECIAL TOPIC: THE PERSONHOOD OF THE SPIRIT
In the OT "the Spirit of God" (i.e., ruach) was a force which accomplished YHWH's purpose, but there is little hint that it was personal (i.e., OT monotheism, see Special Topic: Monotheism). However, in the NT the full personality and personhood of the Spirit is revealed:
1. He can be blasphemed (cf. Matt. 12:31; Mark 3:29)
2. He teaches (cf. Luke 12:12; John 14:26)
3. He bears witness (cf. John 15:26)
4. He convicts, guides (cf. John 16:7-15)
5. He is called "who" (i.e., hos, cf. Eph. 1:14)
6. He can be grieved (cf. Eph. 4:30)
7. He can be quenched (cf. 1 Thess. 5:19)
8. He can be resisted (cf. Acts 7:51)
9. He advocates for believers (cf. John 14:26; 15:26; 16:7)
10. He glorifies the Son (cf. John 16:14)
Trinitarian texts (here are three of many, see Special Topic: The Trinity) also speak of three persons.
1. Matt. 28:19
2. 2 Cor. 13:14
3. 1 Pet. 1:2
Although the Greek word "spirit" (pneuma) is neuter, when referring to the Spirit, the NT often uses masculine demonstrative adjective (cf. John 16:8,13-14).
The Spirit is linked to human activity.
1. Acts 15:28
2. Rom. 8:26
3. 1 Cor. 12:11
4. Eph. 4:30
At the very beginning of Acts, the Spirit's role is emphasized (as in the Gospel of John). Pentecost was not the beginning of the work of the Spirit, but a new chapter. Jesus always had the Spirit. His baptism was not the beginning of the work of the Spirit, but a new chapter. The Spirit is the effective means of the Father's purpose for the restoration of all humans made in His image (see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan)!
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