In the OT "the Spirit of God" (i.e., ruach) was a force which accomplished YHWH's purpose, but there is little hint that it was personal (i.e., OT monotheism, see Special Topic: Monotheism). However, in the NT the full personality and personhood of the Spirit is revealed:

1. He can be blasphemed (cf. Matt. 12:31; Mark 3:29)

2. He teaches (cf. Luke 12:12; John 14:26)

3. He bears witness (cf. John 15:26)

4. He convicts, guides (cf. John 16:7-15)

5. He is called "who" (i.e., hos, cf. Eph. 1:14)

6. He can be grieved (cf. Eph. 4:30)

7. He can be quenched (cf. 1 Thess. 5:19)

8. He can be resisted (cf. Acts 7:51)

9. He advocates for believers (cf. John 14:26; 15:26; 16:7)

10. He glorifies the Son (cf. John 16:14)


Trinitarian texts (here are three of many, see  Special Topic: The Trinity) also speak of three persons.

1. Matt. 28:19

2. 2 Cor. 13:14

3. 1 Pet. 1:2


Although the Greek word "spirit" (pneuma) is neuter, when referring to the Spirit, the NT often uses masculine demonstrative adjective (cf. John 16:8,13-14).


The Spirit is linked to human activity.

1. Acts 15:28

2. Rom. 8:26

3. 1 Cor. 12:11

4. Eph. 4:30


At the very beginning of Acts, the Spirit's role is emphasized (as in the Gospel of John).  Pentecost was not the beginning of the work of the Spirit, but a new chapter.  Jesus always had the Spirit.  His baptism was not the beginning of the work of the Spirit, but a new chapter.  The Spirit is the effective means of the Father's purpose for the restoration of all humans made in His image (see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan)!

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