I. The Old Testament

A. Culturally women were considered property

1. included in list of property (Exodus 20:17)

2. treatment of slave women (Exodus 21:7-11)

3. women's vows annullable by socially responsible male (Numbers 30)

4. women as spoils of war (Deuteronomy 20:10-14; 21:10-14)

B. Practically there was a mutuality

1. male and female made in God's image (Genesis 1:26-27)

2. honor father and mother (Exodus 20:12 [Deut. 5:16])

3. reverence mother and father (Leviticus 19:3; 20:9)

4. men and women could be Nazirites (Numbers 6:1-2)

5. daughters have right of inheritance (Numbers 27:1-11)

6. part of covenant people (Deuteronomy 29:10-12)

7. observe teaching of father and mother (Proverbs 1:8; 6:20)

8. sons and daughters of Heman (Levite family) led music in Temple (1 Chronicles 25:5-6)

9. sons and daughters will prophesy in new age (Joel 2:28-29)

C.  Women were in leadership roles

1. Moses' sister, Miriam, called a prophetess (Exodus 15:20-21 also note Micah 6:4)

2. women gifted by God to weave material for the Tabernacle (Exodus 35:25-26)

3. a married woman, Deborah, also a prophetess (cf. Jdgs. 4:4), led all the tribes (Jdgs 4:4-5; 5:7)

4. Huldah was a prophetess whom King Josiah invoked to read and interpret the newly-found "Book of the Law" (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chr. 34:22-27)

5. Queen Esther, a godly woman, saved Jews in Persia 


II. The New Testament

A. Culturally women in both Judaism and the Greco-Roman world were second class citizens with few rights or privileges (the exception was Macedonia).

B. Women in leadership roles

1. Elizabeth and Mary, godly women available to God (Luke 1-2)

2. Anna, a prophetess serving at the Temple (Luke 2:36)

3. Lydia, believer and leader of a house church (Acts 16:14,40)

4. Philip's four virgin daughters were prophetesses (Acts 21:8-9)

5. Phoebe, deaconess of church at Cenchrea (Rom. 16:1)

6. Prisca (Priscilla), Paul's fellow-worker and teacher of Apollos (Acts 18:26; Rom. 16:3)

7. Mary, Tryphaena, Tryphosa, Persis, Julia, Nereus' sister, several women co-workers of Paul (Rom. 16:6-16)

8. Junia (KJV), possibly a woman apostle (Rom. 16:7)

9. Euodia and Syntyche, co-workers with Paul (Phil. 4:2-3)


III. How does a modern believer balance the divergent biblical examples?

A. How does one determine historical or cultural truths, which apply only to the original context, from eternal truths valid for all churches, all believers of all ages?

1. We must take the intent of the original inspired author very seriously.  The Bible is the Word of God and the only source for faith and practice.

2. We must deal with the obviously historically-conditioned inspired texts.

a. the cultus (i.e., ritual and liturgy) of Israel (cf. Acts 15; Galatians 3)

b. first century Judaism

c. Paul's obviously historically-conditioned statements in 1 Corinthians

(1) the legal system of pagan Rome (1 Corinthians 6)

(2) remaining a slave (1 Cor. 7:20-24)

(3) celibacy (1 Cor. 7:1-35)

(4) virgins (1 Cor. 7:36-38)

(5) food sacrificed to an idol (1 Cor. 8; 10:23-33)

(6) unworthy actions at Lord's Supper (1 Corinthians 11)

3. God fully and clearly revealed Himself to a particular culture, a particular day.  We must take seriously the revelation, but not every aspect of its historical accommodation.  The Word of God was written in human words, addressed to a particular culture at a particular time.

B. Biblical interpretation must seek the original author's intent.  What was he saying to his day?  This is foundational and crucial for proper interpretation.  But then we must apply this to our own day.  The real interpretive problem may be defining the term.  Were there more ministries than pastors who were seen as leadership?  Were deaconesses or prophetesses seen as leaders?  It is quite clear that Paul, in 1 Cor. 14:34-35 and 1 Tim. 2:9-15, is asserting that women should not take the lead in public worship!  But how do I apply that today?  I do not want Paul's culture or my culture to silence God's Word and will.  Possibly Paul's day was too limiting, but also my day may be too open.  I feel so uncomfortable saying that Paul's words and teachings are conditional, first century, local situational truths.  Who am I that I should let my mind or my culture negate an inspired author?! 

However, what do I do when there are biblical examples of women leaders (even in Paul's writings, cf. Romans 16)?  A good example of this is Paul's discussion of public worship in 1 Corinthians 11-14.  In 1 Cor. 11:5 he seems to allow women's preaching and praying in public worship, with their heads covered, yet in 14:34-35 he demands they remain silent!  There were deaconesses (cf. Rom. 16:1) and prophetesses (cf. Acts 21:9).  It is this diversity that allows me freedom to identify Paul's comments (as relates to restrictions on women) as limited to first century Corinth and Ephesus.  In both churches there were problems with women exercising their newly-found freedom (cf. Bruce Winter, After Paul Left Corinth), which could have caused difficulty for the church in reaching their society for Christ.  Their freedom had to be limited so that the gospel could be more effective.

My day is just the opposite of Paul's.  In my day the gospel might be limited if articulate, trained women are not allowed to share the gospel, not allowed to lead! What is the ultimate goal of public worship?  Is it not evangelism and discipleship?  Can God be honored and pleased with women leaders?  The Bible as a whole seems to say "yes"!

I want to yield to Paul; my theology is primarily Pauline.  I do not want to be overly influenced or manipulated by modern feminism!  However, I feel the church has been slow to respond to obvious biblical truths, like the inappropriateness of slavery, racism, bigotry, and sexism.  It has also been slow to respond appropriately to the abuse of women in the modern world.  God in Christ set free the slave and the woman.  I dare not let a culture-bound text reshackle them.

One more point: as an interpreter I know that Corinth was a very disrupted church.  The charismatic gifts were prized and flaunted. Women may have been caught up in this.  I also believe that Ephesus was being affected by false teachers who were taking advantage of women and using them as surrogate speakers in the house churches of Ephesus.

C. Suggestions for further reading

1. How to Read the Bible For All Its Worth by Gordon Fee and Doug Stuart (pp. 61-77)

2. Gospel and Spirit: Issues in New Testament Hermeneutics by Gordon Fee

3. Hard Sayings of the Bible by Walter C. Kaiser, Peter H. Davids, F. F. Bruce, and Manfred T. Branch (pp. 613-616; 665-667)


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