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÷÷MATTHEW 27

MATTHEW 27

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

UBS4 NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Jesus Brought Before Pilate Jesus Handed Over to Pilate Jesus Before Pilate Jesus Taken to Pilate Jesus is Taken Before Pilate
27:1-2 27:1-2 27:1-2 27:1-2 27:1-2
The Death of Judas Judas Hangs Himself   The Death of Judas The Death of Judas
27:3-10 27:3-10 27:3-10 27:3-4a 27:3-10
      27:4b  
      27:5  
      27:6-8  
      27:9-10  
Jesus is Questioned by Pilate Jesus Faces Pilate   Pilate Questions Jesus Jesus Before Pilate
27:11-14 27:11-14 27:11-14 27:11a 27:11-14
      27:11b-12  
      27:13  
      27:14  
Jesus Sentenced to Die Taking the Place of Barabbas   Jesus Sentenced to Death  
27:15-26 27:15-26 27:15-23 27:15-18 27:15-18
      27:19 27:19
      27:20-21a 27:20-26
      27:21b  
      27:22a  
      27:22b  
      27:23a  
      27:23b  
    27:24-26 27:24  
      27:25  
      27:26  
The Soldiers Mock Jesus The Soldiers Mock Jesus The Crucifixion The Soldiers Make Fun of Jesus Jesus is Crowned with Thorns
27:27-31 27:27-31 27:27-31 27:27-31 27:27-31
The Crucifixion of Jesus The King on a Cross   Jesus Nailed to the Cross The Crucifixion
27:32-44 27:32-44 27:32-37 27:32-34 27:32-36
      27:35-38  
        27:37-38
    27:38-44    
        The Crucified Christ is Mocked
      27:39-40 27:39-44
      27:41-43  
      27:44  
The Death of Jesus Jesus Dies on the Cross The Death of Jesus The Death of Jesus The Death of Jesus
27:45-56 27:45-56 27:45-54 27:45-46 27:45-50
      27:47-48  
      27:49  
      27:50  
      27:51-53 27:51-54
      27:54  
    27:55-56 27:55-56 27:55-56
The Burial of Jesus Jesus Buried in Joseph's Tomb   The Burial of Jesus The Burial
27:57-61 27:57-61 27:57-61 27:57-61 27:57-61
The Guard at the Tomb Pilate Sets the Guard   The Guard at the Grave The Guard at the Tomb
27:62-66 27:62-66 27:62-66 27:62-64 27:62-66
      27:65  
      27:66  

READING CYCLE THREE(from "A Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY FOR 27:1-56

÷MATTHEW 27:1-2

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:1-2
 1Now when morning came, all the chief priests and the elders of the people conferred together against Jesus to put Him to death; 2and they bound Him, and led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate the governor.

27:1 "Now when morning came" Romans held court early each day, probably because of the heat. Most of the pilgrims and citizens of Jerusalem were not awake yet. It would have been around 6 a.m.

▣ "all the chief priests" The plural referred to the priestly family of Annas, who had purchased this office from the Romans. He was succeeded by several of his sons and sons-in-law.

▣ "conferred together" Jesus' statements in Matt. 26:64 condemned Him in their minds of blasphemy, which was punishable by stoning, but they wanted Him to bear the curse of crucifixion (cf. Deut. 21:23). Therefore, they had to come up with a charge that the Romans would act on. This is where the charge that He claimed to be King of the Jews was used as a political threat against Roman rule.

27:2 "bound Him" Jesus was bound during these trials possibly because (1) they were afraid of His performing magic to release Himself; (2) it was a way to humiliate Him; or (3) it was the common procedure with criminals.

▣ "Pilate the governor" Probably this took place at the Roman Fortress of Antonia which was built next to the Temple, although it could have been at Herod's palace, which was made available to the Roman officials when they were in Jerusalem. The Romans stationed extra troops from Caesarea by the Sea in Jerusalem during the Jewish feast days in case of riot (cf. Matt. 27:24). Pilate was appointed Governor from a.d. 26-36. History depicts him as a cruel, ruthless man.

It has been surmised that the Jewish leadership brought Jesus to Pilate

1. to fulfill Jesus' prophecy about being killed by Gentiles

2. to have the Romans crucify Him because in this day the Sanhedrin did not have the authority of capital punishment

However, Jesus was accused of blasphemy and, therefore, should have been stoned. The Jews did this very thing to Stephen in Acts 7 and did not ask permission from the Romans. I think these Jewish leaders wanted Jesus crucified to have the divine curse of Deut. 21:23 enacted on Him. They wanted this Messianic pretender cursed by God! Jesus did bear the "curse" (cf. Gal. 3:13; Col. 2:14) for us!

There is a Greek manuscript variation here. In several good ancient manuscripts Pilate's first name, Pontius, is present, (cf. MSS A, C, W, and the Vulgate). It also appears in Luke 3:1; Acts 4:27 and 1 Tim. 6:13. The two names are the norm in the early church literature. However, it is absent in MSS א, B, and L, as well as Mark 15:1 and Luke 23:1.

SPECIAL TOPIC: PONTIUS PILATE

÷MATTHEW 27:3-10

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:3-10
 3Then when Judas who had betrayed Him, saw that He had been condemned, he felt remorse and returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, 4saying, "I have sinned by betraying innocent blood." But they said, "What is that to us? See to that yourself!" 5And he threw the pieces of silver into the temple sanctuary and departed; and he went away and hanged himself. 6The chief priests took the pieces of silver and said, "It is not lawful to put them into the temple treasury, since it is the price of blood." 7And they conferred together and with the money bought the Potter's Field as a burial place for strangers. 8For this reason that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day. 9Then that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the one whose price had been set by the sons of Israel; 10and they gave them for the Potter's Field, as the Lord directed me."

27:3 "Then when Judas who had betrayed Him, saw that He had been condemned" This phrase involves an ambiguous pronoun antecedent, He. The Williams and Phillips translations of the NT assume that it refers to Judas, but all the other modern translations refer this pronoun to Jesus. Notice the capital "He" in NASB. NIV, TEV, JB, and NRSV even insert the name "Jesus" for the pronoun.

▣ "he felt remorse" There were two words in Greek which translate "repentance." The one used here was not the normal word used in Matt. 3:2, which meant "a change of mind and actions." Here the word meant "sorrow afterwards" but with the implication of no real change (cf. Matt. 21:29; 2 Cor. 7:8). The best context in the NT to compare the connotations of these terms is 2 Cor. 7:8-10. See SPECIAL TOPIC: REPENTANCE IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

▣ "thirty pieces" This is an allusion to Zech. 11:12. This was the price of a gored slave (cf. Matt. 26:15; Exod. 21:32).

27:4 "innocent blood" There is a Greek manuscript variant at this point. All of the English translations which are compared in this commentary have "innocent." However, the ancient uncial manuscript B originally had "innocent," but a later copyist put "righteous" from Matt. 23:35. This was followed by the Vulgate and the Diatessaron. The Septuagint uses both adjectives to describe the noun "blood" ; "innocent" appears fourteen times and "righteous" appears four times in the LXX. UBS4 gives "innocent" a "B" rating (almost certain).

27:5 "into the Temple sanctuary" This Greek word usually referred to the Central Shrine made up of the Holy Place and Holy of Holies as separate from the complete Temple area (cf. John 2:9).

▣ "hanged himself" This was not a theological proof-text about suicide bringing damnation. There are several suicides mentioned in the OT: Judges 9:54; 16:30; 1 Sam. 31:4,5; 2 Sam. 17:23; 1 Kgs. 16:18. Nothing negative is ever said about these acts. It was Judas'lack of true repentance that sealed his lostness, not his taking his own life.

The account of Judas' death in Acts 1:18 does not contradict Matthew's account but supplements it. Apparently Judas hanged himself over a cliff and later the rope broke and his body fell and broke open.

SPECIAL TOPIC: ISCARIOT

27:6 "it is the price of blood" They had no qualms about giving the money for Jesus' betrayal, but they felt uncomfortable taking it back! What irony!

27:7 "they. . . bought the Potter's Field" This was possibly a clay quarry which had been depleted and, therefore was of little value. It may have been an allusion to Jer. 18-19. From Jerome's time (4th century a.d.) it was said to have been in the valley of Hinnom near Jerusalem.

27:8 "Field of Blood" This translates the Aramaic term Hakeldama, found in Acts 1:19. Jerome's Vulgate puts the Aramaic term in this verse.

27:9 "spoken through Jeremiah the prophet" This is a direct quote from Zech. 11:12-13. Jeremiah 18:119 also speaks of a potter and Jer. 32:7-9 mentions the buying of a field. This has caused commentators great problems.

1. Augustine, Beza, Luther, and Keil said Matthew quoted the name Jeremiah in error

2. The Peshitta, a 5th century a.d. Syriac translation and the Diatessaron just removed the prophet's name from the text

3. Origen and Eusebius said a copyist caused the problem

4. Jerome and Ewald said it is a quote from an apocryphal writing ascribed to Jeremiah

5. Mede said Jeremiah wrote Zechariah, chapters 9-11

6. Lightfoot and Scofield said Jeremiah was listed first in the Hebrew division of the canon known as "the prophets" and, therefore, his name stands for that section of the canon

7. Hengstenberg said that Zechariah quoted Jeremiah

8. Calvin said an error has crept into the text

9. F. F. Bruce and a JB footnote said it was a composite quote from Zechariah and Jeremiah

I think #6 is the best explanation.

÷MATTHEW 27:11-14

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:11-14
 11Now Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor questioned Him, saying, "Are You the King of the Jews?" And Jesus said to him, "It is as you say." 12And while He was being accused by the chief priests and elders, He did not answer. 13Then Pilate said to Him, "Do You not hear how many things they testify against You?" 14And He did not answer him with regard to even a single charge, so the governor was quite amazed.

27:11 "Are You the King of the Jews" This was the question which implied treason against Rome. It was the political issue that concerned Pilate.

27:11

NASB, NKJV"It is as you say"
NRSV"You say so"
TEV"So you say"
NJB"It is you who say it"

Jesus' answer was an enigmatic phrase which implied, "Yes!" but with qualification (cf. John 18:33-37), which shows His kingdom was not earthly.

27:12 "accused" See Luke 23:2.

▣ "He did not answer" This relates to the Messianic prophecy of Isa. 53:7. He answered Pilate in private, but would not address the charges in the presence of the Jewish leaders or Herod.

÷MATTHEW 27:15-18

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:15-18
 15Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release for the people any one prisoner whom they wanted. 16At that time they were holding a notorious prisoner, called Barabbas. 17So when the people gathered together, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release for you? Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?" 18For he knew that because of envy they had handed Him over.

27:15 "the feast" This refers to the Passover, one of the three annual feasts which all Jewish males above the age of twenty were required to attend (cf. Lev. 23).

▣ "the governor was accustomed" There is no historical corroboration for this except Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 20.9.3.

27:16, 17 "Barabbas" Some later translations have "Jesus Barabbas," but this is not as much a textual option as a tradition. A good discussion is in Bruce Metzger's A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, pp. 67-68, from United Bible Societies. "Barabbas" meant son of a father or rabbi. He was truly guilty of the treasonous charge of which Jesus was accused.

27:18 "For he knew that because of envy they had handed Him over" Pilate tried several ways to release Jesus because of his contempt for the Jewish leaders and their manipulative practices.

÷MATTHEW 27:19-23

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:19-23
 19While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent him a message, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous Man; for last night I suffered greatly in a dream because of Him." 20But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to put Jesus to death. 21But the governor said to them, "Which of the two do you want me to release me for you?" And they said, "Barabbas." 22Pilate said to them, "Then what shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ?" They all said, "Crucify Him!" 23And he said, "Why, what evil has he done?" But they kept shouting all the more, saying, "Crucify Him!"

27:19 "his wife sent him a message, saying, 'Have nothing to do with that righteous Man; for last night I suffered greatly in a dream because of Him'" This information is unique to Matthew. They must have talked about Jesus. She used a Messianic title for Him, but how much she knew is uncertain! The irony is that a pagan woman saw what the Jewish leaders did not (cf. Matt. 27:54; John 1:11).

27:20 "put to death" See Special Topic: Destruction (apollumi).

27:23 "Why, what evil has he done" Pilate was not convinced of Jesus' guilt. This text was a way for the early church (also the trials in Acts) to show that Christianity was not a threat to Roman rule.

▣ "they kept shouting all the more" An imperfect tense phrase, this could be rendered "they began shouting" or " they shouted again and again." This crowd was not the same as the pilgrims involved in the Triumphal Entry. This was possibly the friends of Barabbas who had gathered for the purpose of trying to gain his release! Some have seen this crowd as a set up by the Sanhedrin.

÷MATTHEW 27:24-26

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:24-26
 24When Pilate saw that he was accomplishing nothing, but rather that a riot was starting, he took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd, saying, "I am innocent of this Man's blood; see to that yourselves." 25And all the people said, "His blood shall be on us and on our children!" 26Then he released Barabbas for them; but after having Jesus scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified.

27:24 "a riot was starting" This was always a possibility during feasts with Jerusalem being so crowded with exuberant pilgrims. Rome always stationed extra troops from Caesarea in the Fortress Antonio during feast days.

▣ "washed his hands in front of the crowd" This was a Jewish custom, not a Roman practice (cf. Deut. 21:6-7; Ps. 26:6; 73:13).

27:25 "His blood shall be on us and on our children" This was a grave oath, especially in light of the OT view of corporate guilt (cf. Exod. 20:5-6; 2 Sam. 3:29). This was a self-curse! It was fulfilled in a.d. 70.

27:26 "scourged" This was a severe punishment! It is often fatal. It always preceded crucifixion, but it seems initially from John 19:1, 12 that this possibly was another attempt by Pilate to gain sympathy for Jesus.

The Gospels use different words to describe this brutal beating.

1. phragelloō in Matt. 27:26; Mark 15:15, translated by NASB as "scourged"

2. derō in Luke 22:63, translated by NASB as "beating"

3. mastigoō in John 19:1, translated by NASB as "scourged" (cf. Matt. 20:19; Mark 10:34; Luke 18:33)

This terrible beating always preceded crucifixion. It was so severe that many died from it. A person was unclothed and their hands tied to a stake in the ground. Then a whip of leather thongs with pieces of rock, metal, or bone braided into the end of the nine thongs was lashed across the exposed back. It is recorded that these thongs

1. blinded the victim

2. opened the ribs to the bone

3. knocked out teeth

There was no limit to the number of lashes given by the two soldiers, one on each side.

÷MATTHEW 27:27-31

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:27-31
 27Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole Roman cohort around Him. 28They stripped Him and put a scarlet robe on Him. 29And after twisting together a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand; and they knelt down before Him and mocked Him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" 30They spat on Him, and took the reed and began to beat Him on the head. 31After they had mocked Him, they took the scarlet robe off Him and put His own garments back on Him, and led Him away to crucify Him.

27:27

NASB, NKJV,
NJB"Praetorium"
NRSV, TEV"the governor's headquarters"

This was located in the Fortress Antonio or at Herod's palace which became the Roman governor's residence when in Jerusalem. Some have surmised that it was the site of the soldiers'barracks.

SPECIAL TOPIC: PRÆTORIAN GUARD

▣ "cohort" This was about 600 men, but in reality, only some of them were on duty at one time.

27:28 "scarlet robe" This word comes from an insect which was used to dye clothes dark red. Mark 15:17 and John 19:2 have "purple." This was probably a faded Roman officer's red cloak. Purple was the color of royalty. The early church saw this as symbolic of Jesus' kingly position (as they did the stephanos crown of thorns). The ancients were not as precise in naming colors as moderns.

27:29-30 The soldiers take out their hostility toward the Jewish population on Jesus in their kingly mockery of Him. The "crown of thorns" may allude to (1) mocking Jesus' claim to kingship or (2) the curse of Gen. 3:18 (cf. Gal. 3:13). Thorns are a symbol of rejecting the gospel (cf. Heb. 6:8).

÷MATTHEW 27:32

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:32
 32As they were coming out, they found a man of Cyrene named Simon, whom they pressed into service to bear His cross.

27:32 "man of Cyrene named Simon" Cyrene is modern Libya, but the man's name is Jewish. The fact that he was in Jerusalem at this time says he was a Jew or a proselyte. There was a synagogue in Jerusalem for Cyrenian Jews (cf. Acts 6:9). His racial or ethnic background is uncertain, but he was probably a Jew of the Diaspora.

▣ "pressed into service" This is a Persian word used in Matt. 5:41. Occupying military forces had the right to command local citizens to perform certain tasks.

▣ "to bear His cross" Whether the crossbar or the entire cross was carried to Golgotha is uncertain. The shape of the cross may have been a capital "T," a small "t," an "X," or a scaffolding holding several persons.

÷MATTHEW 27:33-34

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:33-34
 33And when they came to a place called Golgotha, which means Place of a Skull, 34they gave Him wine to drink mixed with gall; and after tasting it, He was unwilling to drink.

27:33 "Golgotha" This Hebrew word meant "skull." "Calvary" is from the Latin. The term referred to a low, bald hill, not a full skull.

27:34 "they gave Him wine to drink mixed with gall" The Babylonian Talmud says the women of Jerusalem gave this strong drink to condemned prisoners to ease their pain (cf. Mark 15:23, where "gall" means "myrrh"). This was possibly a prophetic reference to Psalm 69:21.

▣ "He was unwilling to drink" This has nothing to do with the modern denominational issue of total abstinence (see Special Topic: Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse). Jesus does later accept the cheap wine of the soldiers (cf. Matt. 27:48). He is refusing to take anything to dull either the pain or His senses.

÷MATTHEW 27:35-37

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:35-37
 35And when they had crucified Him, they divided up His garments among themselves by casting lots. 36And sitting down, they began to keep watch over Him there. 37And above His head they put up the charge against Him which read, "THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS."

27:35 "they crucified Him" The Gospels do not dwell on the physical aspect of Jesus' death (cf. Ps. 22:16). This form of death was developed in Mesopotamia and was taken over by the Greeks and Romans. It was meant to be an extended, excruciating death taking several days. Its purpose was to humiliate and cause fear as a deterrent to rebellion against Rome. A thorough article is in the Zondervan Pictorial Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, pp. 1040-42.

▣ "they divided up His garments among themselves by casting lots" This is an allusion to Ps. 22:18. Jesus was possibly naked or, more probably, clothed in just His loin cloth.

The Textus Receptus manuscripts add to the text several phrases that come from John 19:24, which quoted Ps. 22:18; these however are not original in Matthew. These additions are not in the Greek uncial manuscripts א , A, B, D, L, or W, nor in the Latin or Syriac translations.

"Casting lots" is used in the NT both as a game of chance, as here, and a way of knowing God's will as in Acts 1:26. This followed the OT precedent of the Urim and Thummim. This mechanical means of knowing God's will has passed away. This shows that the Bible records things that it does not necessarily advocate. Another good example of this same idea would be Gideon's fleece (cf. Jdgs. 6:36-40).

27:37 "the charge against Him" From John 19:20 we learn the charge was written in three languages (Aramaic, Latin, and Greek). Pilate worded it on purpose in such a way so as to anger the Jewish leaders. The charge is given differently in the four Gospels:

Matthew:  "This is Jesus the King of the Jews"

Mark:  "The King of the Jews" (cf. Mark 15:26)

Luke:  "This is the King of the Jews" (cf. Luke 23:38)

John:  "Jesus the Nazarene, the King of the Jews" (cf. John 19:19)

 

÷MATTHEW 27:38-44

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:38-44
 38At that time two robbers were crucified with Him, one on the right and one on the left. 39And those passing by were hurling abuse at Him, wagging their heads 40and saying, "You who are going to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save Yourself! If You are the Son of God, come down from the cross." 41In the same way the chief priests also, along with the scribes and elders, were mocking Him and saying, 42"He saved others; He cannot save Himself. He is the King of Israel; let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe in Him. 43He trusts in God; let God rescue Him now, if He delights in Him; for He said, 'I am the Son of God.'" 44The robbers who had been crucified with Him were also insulting Him with the same words.

27:38 "two robbers were crucified with Him" This is an allusion to Isa. 53:12. Josephus' use of this term "robbers" suggests these may have been "zealots," like Barabbas.

27:39 "those passing by were hurling abuse at Him, wagging their heads" This is an allusion to Ps. 22:7. Golgotha must have been near a main roadway into Jerusalem. The purpose of crucifixion was to deter crime and revolt.

27:40 "If You are the Son of God" This is a first class conditional sentence, which the speaker assumes to be true for the purpose of making a point (cf. Matt. 4:3). These leaders had no doubt who Jesus claimed to be!

27:41 "chief priest. . .scribes. . .elders" This was the full designation of the Sanhedrin.

27:43 "He trusts in God; let God rescue Him now, if He delights in Him" This is a quote from Ps. 22:8. This Psalm of David describes Jesus' crucifixion in amazing detail.

27:44 Matthew states that both of the zealots crucified with Jesus insulted Him at first, but Luke 23:39 says only one of the criminals hurled abuses at Him. Again this is not contradictory but complementary. They were both angry and insolent at first, but one mellowed and repented.

÷MATTHEW 27:45-54

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:45-54
 45Now from the sixth hour darkness fell upon all the land until the ninth hour. 46About the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?" 47And some of those who were standing there, when they heard it, began saying, "This man is calling for Elijah." 48Immediately one of them ran, and taking a sponge, he filled it with sour wine and put it on a reed, and gave Him a drink. 49But the rest of them said, " Let us see whether Elijah will come to save Him." 50And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit. 51And behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth shook and the rocks were split. 52The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; 53and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection they entered the holy city and appeared to many. 54Now the centurion, and those who were with him keeping guard over Jesus, when they saw the earthquake and the things that were happening, became very frightened and said, "Truly this was the Son of God!"

27:45 "from the sixth hour. . .until the ninth hour" This refers to Roman time (i.e., noon to 3 p.m.). It is often difficult to know, especially in John's gospel, if the time designations are referring to Roman time, which begins at dawn, or Jewish time which begins at evening. Here it is obvious.

▣ "darkness" Darkness was one of the plagues on Egypt which turned into a covenant curse if God's commands were not kept (cf. Exod. 10:21ff; Deut. 28:29; Joel 2:10; and Amos 8:9). Theologically, it was a symbol of God's turning away from His Son as He bore the sins of the world. This personal spiritual separation, as well as the burden of all the sins of all mankind, was what Jesus feared most.

27:46 "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani"Jesus combines Hebrew and Aramaic words from Ps. 22:1. Matthew and Mark (Mark 15:34) use slightly different words. Matthew translates them for his readers, who spoke only Aramaic. From Matt. 27:47 it is obvious Jesus' words were misunderstood by the crowd gathered to watch the crucifixion.

▣ "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me" These are the first words of Psalm 22. By quoting them Jesus wants to bring to His hearers' minds the complete Psalm. Jesus was experiencing separation from God, the last great experience of sinful mankind (cf. Gal. 3:13; 2 Cor. 5:21). However, the Psalm also expresses faith in YHWH's faithfulness!

27:47 "This man is calling for Elijah" Elijah was to be the precursor of the Messiah (cf. Mal. 4:5). It is probable that Jesus' Aramaic "Eloi" (cf. Mark 15:34) or possibly "Eliya" sounded like the name of the prophet.

27:48

NASB, NKJV,
NRSV"sour wine"
TEV"cheap wine"
NJB"vinegar"

This was the cheap wine that the soldiers drank. Offering this wine was not an act of compassion on the part of the soldiers, but a way to prolong the agony of the crucifixion. Jesus took some because His mouth was so dry that He could not speak (cf. Ps. 22:15). This may have fulfilled Ps. 69:21

27:49 At this point there is another added phrase from John 19:34. It is absent in the ancient Greek uncial manuscripts A, D, K, and the Greek texts of Origen, Jerome, and Augustine, but present in א, B, C, and L. It is hard to decide on the originality of this passage because (1) it seems to be an assimilation from John; (2) it seems to be out of chronological order; yet (3) it is present in several good manuscripts. Was Jesus pierced before He died? The UBS4 gives the shorter text a "B" rating (almost certain). In the context of Matthew, Jesus had not died yet!

27:50 "Jesus cried out again with a loud voice" Compare John 19:30; Ps. 22:15; Luke 23:46; Ps. 31:5.

27:51 "the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom" This was the veil which separated the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies, called the inner veil (cf. Exod. 26:31-35). This act by God indicated that the way was now open for all to come to God! It was torn from the top, which symbolized God's act of removing barriers to His presence and making Himself accessible to all people.

27:52 "the tombs were opened" This was caused by the earthquake (cf. Matt. 27:54). Exactly when the people came back to life is uncertain. This resuscitation seems linked to Jesus' resurrection (cf. Matt. 27:53). But the text seems to place the event at Jesus' death. There is ambiguity here as to who, when, where and why. This information is unique to Matthew.

"saints" See Special Topic below.

SPECIAL TOPIC: SAINTS

▣ "who had fallen asleep" Sleep is an OT euphemism for death (i.e., used mostly in Kings and Chronicles). This is not a proof-text for the theory of "soul sleep." The Scripture must be interpreted in light of the meaning of the words to the first hearers/readers!

27:54

NASB, NKJV"Truly this was the Son of God!"
NRSV"Truly the man was God's Son!"
TEV"He really was the Son of God!"
NJB"In truth this was a son of God!"

There is no article with "son." This soldier was surely impressed by all that happened. He asserts Jesus was "a son of God." However, in the parallel in Luke 23:47 he is proclaiming Jesus as "righteous" or "innocent." The irony is that this Roman soldier saw what the Jewish leaders did not (cf. Matt. 27:19; John 1:11).

This is literally "this man was a son of God." The image of God in mankind has been restored! Intimate fellowship is again possible. However the absence of the article does not automatically mean it is not definite (cf. Matt. 4:3,6; 14:33; 27:43; and Luke 4:3,9). This was a hardened Roman soldier. He had seen many men die (cf. Matt. 27:54). This may be "the focal passage" of Mark because this Gospel was specifically written to Romans. Mark's Gospel has many Latin words and very few OT quotes. Also Jewish customs and Aramaic phrases are translated and explained. Here is a Roman centurion professing faith in a crucified Jewish insurrectionist!

It is possibly purposeful that passers by, chief priests, and even fellow prisoners mock Jesus, but a Roman centurion responds in affirmation and awe!

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE SON OF GOD

÷MATTHEW 27:55-56

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:55-56
 55Many women were there looking on from a distance, who had followed Jesus from Galilee while ministering to Him. 56Among them was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

27:55 "many women" Mark 15:40 has a parallel list. These women were traveling companions of Jesus and the Twelve. They may have even supported Jesus and the Disciples financially as well as cooking for them and meeting the needs of other women who Jesus and the Apostles ministered to. See Special Topic following.

SPECIAL TOPIC: WOMEN WHO TRAVELED WITH JESUS AND HIS DISCIPLES

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Why did the Sanhedrin go to Pilate? Why not kill Jesus by stoning?

2. How is Judas'repentance different from Peter's?

3. Why does Pilate try to release Jesus?

4. What is the purpose of finding so many OT allusions to Christ's death?

5. Why did it turn dark when Jesus was on the cross? Why did Jesus feel forsaken?

6. List the signs that followed Jesus' death. What was their purpose?

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY (The context includes 27:57-28:20)

(The parallels to this Gospel are in Mark 15:42-16:8, Luke 23:50-24:12, John 19:30-20:10)

÷MATTHEW 27:57-61

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:57-61
 57When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Jesus. 58This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. 59And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the entrance of the tomb and went away. 61And Mary Magdalene was there, and the other Mary, sitting opposite the grave.

27:57 "When it was evening" This phrase means it was close to the beginning of the Passover which began at  6:00 p.m. or twilight. The Jews had two evenings. The first at  3 p.m. and the second at  6 p.m., which started a new day.

▣ "a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph" Several passages describe this man.

1. he was rich and a disciple of Jesus (cf. Matt. 27:57)

2. he was a highly honored member of the Sanhedrin (cf. Mark 15:43)

3. he was a good and upright man (cf. Luke 23:50)

4. he was a secret disciple of Jesus for fear of the Jews (cf. John 19:38)

 

27:57-58 This was a brave act on the part of Joseph for the following reasons.

1. he was publicly identifying himself with a man convicted of treason

2. he was willing to be ceremonially unclean for the Passover

3. this would surely ostracize him from the Sanhedrin

 

27:59 Joseph hurried to prepare Jesus' body before 6 p.m., which started Passover. The exact time when the stone was rolled into place is uncertain. It was before 6 p.m. However brief the time, it was counted as one day in the three days Jesus was in the grace.

27:60 "his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock" This is a fulfillment of the prophecy of Isa. 53:9.

27:61 "Mary Magdalene" See Matt. 27:55-56 for a listing of the three women.

÷MATTHEW 27:62-66

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 27:62-66
 62Now on the next day, the day after the preparation, the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered together with Pilate, 63and said, "Sir, we remember that when He was still alive that deceiver said, 'After three days I am to rise again.'64Therefore, give orders for the grave to be made secure until the third day, otherwise His disciples may come and steal Him away and say to the people, 'He has risen from the dead,'and the last deception will be worse than the first." 65Pilate said to them, "You have a guard; go, make it as secure as you know how." 66And they went and made the grave secure, and along with the guard they set a seal on the stone.

27:62-66 This account is unique to Matthew (cf. Matt. 28:2-4,11-15).

27:62 "Now on the next day, the day after the preparation" This is an obvious reference to the Sabbath. Being in Pilate's presence and court would have made the Jewish leaders ceremonially unclean and thus unable to participate in the Passover. This very act shows how fearful they were of Jesus and His power and predictions.

▣ "the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered together" It is so ironic (1) that they met at all; (2) that it was the Sabbath of Passover week; (3) that the Sadducees did not even believe in the resurrection; and (4) that they became powerful, though unwilling, witnesses to the resurrection!

27:63 It is ironic that Pilate is called Kurie (translated "sir") by these Jewish leaders and Jesus the Lord is called "that deceiver."

NASB, NKJV"that deceiver"
NRSV, NJB"that impostor"
TEV"that liar"

This word (planos) may be literally rendered "wanderer," explaining the derivation of our English word "planet" from the same term for "wandering" celestial lights. It originally referred to the orbit of planets that did not follow the standard pattern of the constellations. The term had a negative connotation in Greek. It was applied to errors or liars.

NASB"After three days I am to arise again"
NKJV"After three days I will rise"
NRSV, NJB"After three days I will rise again"
TEV"I will be raised to life three days later"

Literally, "after three days I am raised." This is a present passive. The context implies that Pilate assigned Roman soldiers to guard the tomb. The Jewish leaders knew of Jesus' predictions (cf. Matt. 12:40; 16:4) and feared them. The disciples were surprised by the resurrection-what irony!

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE RESURRECTION

27:65 "You have a guard" This is an idiom (i.e., an imperative, not an indicative) for permission to the Jewish delegation for Roman soldiers to guard the tomb.

▣ "go, make it as secure as you know how" "Go" is a present active imperative followed by an aorist middle (deponent) imperative. There is a bit of sarcasm here (i.e., "as you know how"). These priestly leaders were no friends of Pilate, but they shared a desire of political expediency.

27:66 "they went" This refers to the representatives of the Jewish leadership and the Roman soldiers. These leaders wanted to make sure the tomb was sealed and guarded! Their representatives may even have helped seal the tomb themselves!

The phrase "the living God" is a word play on the title YHWH (cf. Exod. 3:14; Ps. 42:2; 84:2; Matt. 16:16). This same word play is often found in biblical oaths, "as the Lord lives."

▣ "made the grave secure" This referred to an official sealing which used two blobs of wax placed at the juncture of the round stone and the wall of the tomb imprinted with an official Roman seal, with a string between them.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Was Joseph of Arimathea present at the night trial?

2. Why was Pilate so willing to have the bodies disposed of?

3. List the prophet's predictions in this section.

4. What role did the women who followed the apostolic group serve?

5. Explain the irony of Matt. 27:64 and the sarcasm of Matt. 27:65.

 

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