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÷÷MATTHEW 26

MATTHEW 26

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

UBS4 NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
The Plot to Kill Jesus The Plot to Kill Jesus Jesus' Death The Plot Against Jesus The Conspiracy Against Jesus
26:1-5 26:1-5 26:1-2 26:1-2 26:1-2
    26:3-5 26:3-5 26:3-5
The Anointing at Bethany The Anointing at Bethany   Jesus Anointed at Bethany The Anointing at Bethany
26:6-13 26:6-13 26:6-13 26:6-9 26:6-13
      26:10-13  
Judas'Agreement to Jesus Judas Agrees to Betray Jesus   Judas Agrees to Betray Jesus Judas Betrays Jesus
26:14-16 26:14-16 26:14-16 26:14-16 26:14-16
The Passover with the Disciples Jesus Celebrates Passover with His Disciples The Last Supper Jesus Eats the Passover Meal with His Disciples Preparations for the Passover Supper
26:17-25 26:17-30 26:17-19 26:17 26:17-19
      26:18  
      26:19  
        The Treachery of Judas Foretold
    26:20-25 26:20-21 26:20-25
      26:22  
      26:23-24  
      26:25a,b  
      26:25c  
The Institution of the Supper     The Lord's Supper The Institution of the Eucharist
26:26-30   26:26-29 26:26 26:26-29
      26:27-29  
    Gethsemane   Peter's Denial Foretold
    26:30 26:30 26:30-35
Peter's Denial Foretold Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial   Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial  
26:31-35 26:31-35 26:31-35 26:31-32  
      26:33  
      26:34  
      26:35a  
      26:35b  
The Prayer in Gethsemane The Prayer in the Garden   Jesus Prays in Gethsemane Gethsemane
26:36-46 26:36-46 26:36-46 26:36-38 26:36-37
        26:38-46
      26:39  
      26:40-41  
      26:42-43  
      26:44-46  
The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus Betrayal and Arrest in Gethsemane   The Arrest of Jesus The Arrest
26:47-56 26:47-56 26:47-56 26:47-48 26:47-56
      26:49  
      26:50a  
      26:50b-54  
      26:55-56a  
      26:56b  
Jesus Before the Council Jesus Faces the Sanhedrin Jesus Before Caiaphas Jesus Before the Council Jesus Before the Sanhedrin
26:57-68 26:57-68 26:57-68 26:57-61 26:57-58
        26:59-66
      26:62-63  
      26:64  
      26:65-66a  
      26:66b  
      26:67-68 26:67-68
Peter's Denial of Jesus Peter Denies Jesus, and Weeps Bitterly   Peter Denies Peter's Denials
26:69-75 26:69-75 26:69-75 26:69 26:69-75
      26:70-71  
      26:72  
      26:73  
      26:74a  
      26:74b-75  

READING CYCLE THREE(from "A Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY FOR 26:1-35

÷MATTHEW 26:1-2

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:1-2
 1When Jesus had finished all these words, He said to His disciples, 2"You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man is to be handed over for crucifixion."

26:1 "When Jesus had finished all these words" This referred to Jesus' eschatological discourse in Matthew 24-25. This phrase is a literary marker which Matthew used to mark off Jesus' discourses (cf. Matt. 7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 26:1).

26:2 "after two days the Passover is coming" There is much confusion over the exact date of the Lord's Supper and, for that matter, the whole itinerary of the last week of Jesus' ministry. The Lord's Supper was obviously linked to the Passover symbolism (cf. John. 1:29). The Synoptic Gospels say it was the Passover meal, but John says it was the day before. There is some evidence that because the high priesthood had been corrupted by being purchased from the Roman occupiers that several sects of the Jews had Passover on a different day (i.e., the Essenes of the Dead Sea Scrolls used a solar calendar and had Passover one day earlier) than the official feast.

John's dating of the Supper one day earlier emphasizes Jesus as the Passover lamb killed to save the family. If so, John may have altered the date for theological purposes, as he may have altered the cleansing of the temple early for theological presentation of Jesus' life. The Gospel writers under inspiration had the right to select, adapt, and arrange the words and deeds of Jesus so as to present Him to different groups (Gordon Fee, Doug Stuart, How To Read the Bible For All Its Worth).

▣ "Son of Man" See note at Matt. 8:24:30.

▣ "is to be handed over for crucifixion" Jesus had warned the disciples of this several times (cf. Matt. 16:21; 17:9,12,22-23; 20:18-19; 27:63). These predictions would embolden His followers in the days after the Passion week. Jesus knew future events. Jesus laid down His own life (cf. Mark 10:45; John. 10:11,15,18). He was always in control of the timing and events themselves.

▣ "crucifixion" This was a form of public torture developed by either the Phoenicians or in Mesopotamia to deter rebellion and crime but perfected (i.e., where it lasted several days) by the Romans. No Roman citizen could be crucified. It involved a public beating and nailing to a cross. The shape of the cross could be a capital "T" or a small "t" or an "X." It is even possible that a scaffolding was used when several persons were crucified together. Death finally occurred by asphyxiation. The condemned person had to push up on his nailed feet to breathe. This is why breaking the legs of those criminals crucified with Jesus caused their rapid death (cf. John. 19:32).

÷MATTHEW 26:3-5

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:3-5
 3Then the chief priests and the elders of the people were gathered together in the court of the high priest, named Caiaphas; 4and they plotted together to seize Jesus by stealth and kill Him. 5But they were saying, "Not during the festival, otherwise a riot might occur among the people."

26:3 "the chief priests and the elders" This was the short designation for the Sanhedrin. See Special Topic: The Sanhedrin.

▣ "in the court of the high priest" This referred to the central courtyard of Caiaphas'and possibly Annas'mansion.

▣ "Caiaphas" Caiaphas was the High Priest, appointed by Rome, in exchange for a price, from a.d. 18-36. He was the son-in-law of Annas, High Priest from a.d. 6-15. This powerful family was motivated more by politics and wealth than by spirituality. It is unfair to judge all Sadducees or, for that matter, the Sanhedrin, by them.

26:4 "they plotted together to seize Jesus by stealth and kill Him" They decided early in His ministry to kill Him, but they were seeking an opportunity when the common people were not present (cf. Matt. 12:14; Mark 14:1; Luke 22:2; John. 5:18; 7:1,19,25; 8:37,40; 11:53). They were jealous of His popularity and fearful of His teachings and actions.

26:5 "during the festival" The Passover was combined with the Feast of the Unleavened Bread to form an eight day feast (cf. Exodus 12 and Josephus'Antiquities of the Jews 3.10.5).

▣ "a riot might occur among the people" Many pilgrims from Galilee and the Diaspora were present in Jerusalem for observance of the Passover. The Passover was required for all male Jews of twenty years and above (cf. Lev. 23:2, 4, 17, 44; Num. 29:39). Jerusalem swelled to three times its normal population during the three mandatory annual feasts. The Romans always brought in extra soldiers during the feast days (cf. Matt. 27:24).

÷MATTHEW 26:6-13

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:6-13
 6Now when Jesus was in Bethany, at the home of Simon the leper, 7a woman came to Him with an alabaster vial of very costly perfume, and she poured it on His head as He reclined at the table. 8But the disciples were indignant when they saw this, and said, "Why this waste? 9For this perfume might have been sold for a high price and the money given to the poor." 10But Jesus, aware of this, said to them, "Why do you bother the woman? For she has done a good deed to Me. 11For you always have the poor with you; but you do not always have Me. 12For when she poured this perfume on My body, she did it to prepare Me for burial. 13Truly I say to you, wherever this gospel is preached in the whole world, what this woman has done will also be spoken of in memory of her."

26:6 "the home of Simon the leper" Mary and Martha served the meal (cf. John. 12:1ff.), but it was not at their home (cf. Mark 14:3). It is possible they were somehow related, all being from the same small village, Bethany. Simon was apparently (although not recorded) healed by Jesus earlier.

26:7 "a woman" John. 12:3 says it was Mary, the sister of Lazarus. This account is not to be confused with the prostitute of Luke 7:37-39.

▣ "alabaster vial of very costly perfume" This was a white/yellow stone vase from Egypt. The contents were made from an aromatic Indian herb called "nard" or "spikenard" (cf. Song of Songs 1:12; 4:13-14; Mark 14:3; John. 12:3). It was very expensive and may have been Mary's wedding dowry.

▣ "poured it on His head" John. 12:3 says that she put the nard on His "feet." Since this vial contained 12 ounces, or one Roman pound, there was enough to cover His whole body. Once the vial was opened it could not be resealed.

26:8 "the disciples were indignant" John 12:4 says it was Judas Iscariot who was upset.

26:9 "for a high price" This high price was three hundred denarii (cf. John. 12:5). A denarius was the daily wage of a soldier or laborer. The implication is that Judas was thinking of the needs of the poor. However, he probably wanted some of the money for himself (cf. John 12:6).

26:10 "she has done a good deed to Me" The noun "deed" and the verb are from the same root. It intensifies the statement or was an idiom (cf. John 3:21; 6:28; 9:4; Acts 13:41; 1 Cor. 16:10).

26:11 "For you always have the poor with you" This was not a callous statement toward poverty, but a recognition of the uniqueness of Jesus' presence.

26:12 "to prepare Me for burial" Mary was a disciple; maybe she understood more than the Apostles! This perfume was used to anoint the body of the dead before burial (cf. John. 19:40).

26:13 "in the whole world" Jesus assumed His gospel (Matthew uses the term for Jesus' actions in Matt. 4:23; 9:35; and Jesus uses the term in Matt. 24:14; 26:13) would be preached everywhere (cf. Matt. 24:9,14,32; 28:19-20). This fulfills the OT universal predictions (especially Isaiah, i.e., 2:1-4; 42:6; 49:6; 51:4-5; 56:7)!

÷MATTHEW 26:14-16

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:14-16
 14Then one of the twelve, named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests 15and said, "What are you willing to give me to betray Him to you?" And they weighed out thirty pieces of silver to him. 16From then on he began looking for a good opportunity to betray Jesus.

26:14 "Iscariot" There are several theories concerning this word (the word is spelled differently in various Greek manuscripts). It could refer to

1. a man of Kerioth, a city of Judah

2. man of Kartan, a city of Galilee

3. the leather bag used to carry money

4. the Hebrew word for "strangling"

5. the Greek word for assassin's knife

If #1 is true he was the only Judean in the Twelve. If #5 is true he was a zealot like Simon.

There has recently been written a book that interprets Judas in a positive light. The book is entitled Judas, Betrayer or Friend of Jesus? by William Klassen, Fortress Press, 1996. My problem with it is that it does not take the comments in John's Gospel seriously.

26:15 "What are you willing to give me to betray Him to you" The motive seems obvious (cf. John. 12:6). The tragedy of Judas is unexplainable. Many modern theories suppose him to be trying to force Jesus to be the expected militant Jewish messiah. The Gospel of John asserts he was a thief.

▣ "thirty pieces of silver" This fulfilled the prophecy of Zech. 11:12-13 (cf. Matt. 27:9-10). Jesus was the rejected Shepherd. It was the price paid in the OT for a gored slave (cf. Exod. 21:32). Chapters 9-14 of Zechariah are quoted several times as a prophetic source in relation to Jesus' ministry.

1. Matt. 21:4-5 quote Zech. 9:9

2. Matt. 24:3 quotes Zech. 12:10

3. Matt. 26:15 quotes Zech. 11:12-13

4. Matt. 26:31 quotes Zech. 13:7

5. Matt. 27:9-10 quotes Zech. 11:12-13

 

÷MATTHEW 26:17-19

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:17-19
 17Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus and asked, "Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?" 18And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is near; I am to keep the Passover at your house with My disciples." '" 19The disciples did as Jesus had directed them; and they prepared the Passover.

26:17 "the first day of Unleavened Bread" The exact chronology of the last week is confusing. Often the Synoptics (Matthew, Mark and Luke) and John (13:1; 19:14,31,42) do not agree. This eight day feast involved two Sabbaths, Passover being the first (cf. Lev. 23:4-8; Deut. 16:8).

▣ "the disciples" Luke 22:8 identified Peter and John as these disciples.

▣ "Passover" It was eaten on Nisan 15 at  6:00 p.m. The exact day of the week varied year to year because of the Jewish lunar calendar (cf. Matt. 26:20).

26:18 "to a certain man" Luke 22:10 says he was to be identified by "carrying a pitcher of water," an activity traditionally considered women's work.

NASB, NRSV,
NJB"My time is near"
NKJV"My time is at hand"
TEV"My hour has come"

This was a cryptic phrase used by Jesus for His time of rejection, betrayal, and crucifixion (cf. John. 2:4; 7:6, 8, 30; 8:20; 12:23; 13:1; 17:1).

▣ "at your house with My disciples" Many believe this was the home of John Mark who was

1. Barnabas' cousin (Col. 4:10)

2. missionary helper (Acts 12:25; 13:5,13; 15:37,39)

3. the scribe of Peter's memoirs, the Gospel of Mark (1 Pet. 5:13)

It is also surmised that this was the location of the upper room (cf. Acts 1:13; 12:12), where the disciples waited for the Spirit to come (Acts 1:5; 2:1).

÷MATTHEW 26:20-25

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:20-25
 20Now when evening came, Jesus was reclining at the table with the twelve disciples. 21As they were eating, He said, "Truly I say to you that one of you will betray Me." 22Being deeply grieved, they each one began to say to Him, "Surely not I, Lord?" 23And He answered, "He who dipped his hand with Me in the bowl is the one who will betray Me. 24The Son of Man is to go, just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born." 25And Judas, who was betraying Him, said, "Surely it is not I, Rabbi?" Jesus said to him, "You have said it yourself."

26:20 "reclining at the table" Tables and chairs were only used in Egypt in this period of time. In Palestine they laid on their left elbows at a low table with their feet behind them (cf. Mark 14:18). This is how Mary could easily anoint His feet (cf. John. 12:3).

26:21 "betray" This is the Greek term "to give over" (paradidōmi). It is always translated "betray" by English Bibles, but this is not an established meaning. It can mean

1. a positive meaning of entrust (cf. Matt. 11:27)

2. restore or commend (cf. Acts 14:26; 15:40)

3. a negative sense of to hand someone over to the authorities

4. to put someone in Satan's hands (cf. 1 Cor. 5:5; 1 Tim. 1:20)

5. for God to abandon someone to his own idolatry (cf. Acts 7:42)

It is obvious that context must determine the meaning of the common verb.

26:22 "Surely not I, Lord" Each disciple asked the question. The Greek grammatical construction expected a negative answer. Their asking the question shows their confusion.

26:23 "He who dipped his hand with Me in the bowl is the one who will betray Me" For one to betray a host was the height of shame in the East (cf. Ps. 41:9). Judas had the seat of honor next to Jesus on His left side. Jesus was still trying to reach Judas!

▣ "the bowl" This was a traditional Passover sauce of nuts, raisins, dates, figs, and vinegar.

26:24 Jesus knew who He was and what He must do (cf. John 13:1). Jesus came to reveal God, to give mankind an example to follow, and to die for their sin (cf. Mark 10:45; Acts 2:23-24; 2 Cor. 5:21). His life was revealed in OT prophecy (cf. Matt. 26:31,54,56; 11:10; 21:42).

▣ "if" This is a second class conditional sentence. Judas'betrayal was a necessary, predicted act for which he will suffer the punishment. This is the mystery of election and free will!

26:25 "Surely it is not I, Rabbi" Note Judas used the title "rabbi" (i.e., my teacher) not "Lord" as the other disciples had.

▣ "You have said it yourself" Jesus was still trying to reach Judas. The idiomatic phrase was also used in Matt. 26:64 and 27:11.

÷MATTHEW 26:26-29

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:26-29
 26While they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is My body." 27And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you; 28for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. 29But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom."

26:26 "While they were eating" The focus of the seder meal, to which this alludes, was the third cup of blessing after the meal itself. Jesus wanted to identify with the deliverance of the Exodus. He was the lamb of God, but He chose the bread and wine, not the Passover lamb, as the symbol for the new covenant. Matthew often depicts Jesus as the second Moses, the new law-giver. Jesus brings the new exodus from sin.

▣ "bread" This referred to flat, unleavened bread cakes used in the Passover meal (cf. Exod. 12).

26:26-28 "this is My body. . .this is My blood" The first recorded Lord's supper is Paul's account in 1 Cor. 11:17-34.

The Synoptic Gospels were written after some of the NT letters. The exact date is uncertain but they were not the first church writings (cf. William L. Blevins' book Birth of a New Testament, personal publication, Carson-Newman College).

26:28 "this is My blood of the covenant" This may be an allusion to Exod. 24:8. Some ancient uncial Greek manuscripts add "new" before covenant: MSS A, C, D, and W. This would reflect Jer. 31:31-34. However, many other good ancient manuscripts (MSS P37, א , B, and L) do not make this addition. It may have been assimilated from Luke 22:20. It is absent in Mark 14:24. The UBS4 gives the shorter reading a "B" rating (almost certain).

▣ "poured out for many" This is an allusion to Isa. 53:11-12. See SPECIAL TOPIC: POURED OUT. There has been much discussion about the relationship between "the many" of Isa. 53:11,12 and "us all" of Isa. 53:6. The parallelism of Rom. 5:17-19 may answer this question. The "all men" of Matt. 5:18 is the same as "the many" of Matt. 5:19. Jesus died for all humans (cf. John. 3:16); all are potentially saved in Him!

▣ "for forgiveness of sins" This is the thrust of the New Covenant (cf. Jer. 31:31-34) and the significance of Jesus' name (" YHWH saves," cf. Matt. 1:21).

26:29 "I will not drink. . .until. . .My Father's Kingdom" This was a reference to the Messianic end-time banquet (cf. Matt. 8:11; Luke 13:28-30; note Mal. 1:11). This was often connected to the Wedding Feast of Jesus and the Church (cf. Eph. 5:23-29; Rev. 19:7). See SPECIAL TOPIC: THE KINGDOM OF GOD.

SPECIAL TOPIC: BIBLICAL ATTITUDES TOWARD ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM

÷MATTHEW 26:30

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:30
 30After singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.

26:30 "singing a hymn" The hymn was probably one or more of the Hallel Psalms 113-118, or 146-150, traditionally used at the close of the Passover ceremony or it may have been the Great Hallel (cf. Psalm 136).

÷MATTHEW 26:31-35

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:31-35
 31Then Jesus said to them, "You will all fall away because of Me this night, for it is written, 'I will strike down the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered.'32But after I have been raised, I will go ahead of you to Galilee." 33But Peter said to Him, "Even though all may fall away because of You, I will never fall away." 34Jesus said to Him, "Truly I say to you that this very night, before a rooster crows, you will deny Me three times." 35Peter said to Him, "Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You." All the disciples said the same thing too.

26:31 "You will all fall away" This states clearly that Jesus' disciples will abandon Him in His hour of need (cf. Matt. 26:56.) Only John stayed with Him and Peter followed at a distance. The rest fled!

▣ "for it is written" This is a quote from Zech. 13:7. It is interesting that the first eight chapters of Zechariah are quoted often in the book of the Revelation, while the last six are often quoted in the Gospels. It is YHWH who strikes the Shepherd (cf. Isa. 53:6,10; Rom. 8:32). This was always God's plan of redemption (cf. Acts 2:23; 3:18; 4:28; 13:29). See SPECIAL TOPIC: YHWH's ETERNAL REDEMPTIVE PLAN.

▣ "sheep" Sheep became the animal metaphor used for the followers of Christ.

1. Matt. 7:15 (false sheep)

2. Matt. 9:36; 26:3; Mark 14:27 (scattered flock)

3. Matt. 10:6; 15:24 (lost sheep of Israel)

4. Matt. 10:16; Luke 10:3 (lambs among wolves)

5. Matt. 18:12; Luke 15:6 (parable)

6. Matt. 25:32-33 (sheep and goat judgment)

7. Mark 6:34 (sheep with no shepherd)

8. John 10:1-18 (Jesus as the Good Shepherd)

9. John 21:16-17 (Peter, feed my lambs and sheep)

10. 1 Pet. 2:25 (Isa. 53:6, sheep going astray)

 

26:32 "after I have been raised" See Special Topic: The Resurrection.

▣ "I will go ahead of you to Galilee" This post-resurrection meeting is mentioned several times (cf. Matt. 26:32; 28:7,10,16-20; 1 Cor. 15:6; and John. 21). This should have been a great encouragement to the disciples, but they apparently did not understand.

26:33 "Even though all may fall away" Peter's presumption is clearly seen. This is much like Matt. 16:22-23, where Peter denies the Lord's prediction.

26:34 "Truly I say to you" This is literally "amen," which originally meant "to be firm," but came to mean "I agree" or "I affirm." Jesus used this term uniquely to begin significant statements. See Special Topic: Amen.

▣ "a rooster crows" This occurred between 12:00 a.m. and 3:00 a.m. It must have been a Roman rooster because the Jews did not allow them in the holy city. There has been some speculation that there was a Roman trumpet signal called "The Crow of the Rooster," which was sounded at the end of the watch at 3 a.m. However, this is still uncertain.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Why did the religious leaders want to kill Jesus?

2. What about the chronological problems among the four Gospels? Is the Bible in error?

3. Is Judas responsible for his action? What did he do? Why did he do it?

4. What is the significance of the Lord's Supper?

5. Did Judas take the Lord's Supper?

6. Why was the prediction of the disciples' apostasy recorded?

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY FOR 26:36-75

÷MATTHEW 26:36-38

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:36-38
 36Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane, and said to His disciples, "Sit here while I go over there and pray." 37And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be grieved and distressed. 38Then He said to them, "My soul is deeply grieved, to the point of death; remain here and keep watch with Me."

26:36 "Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane" "Gethsemane" meant "oil press" in Hebrew. It apparently was a private garden just outside the city limits of Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives. It was illegal to have gardens within the city because the manure needed for the plants made the city ceremonially unclean. Apparently Jesus came to this garden quite often. It is even possible that during Passion Week He bivouacked here with His disciples. Judas knew the place well.

26:37 "And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee" From Mark 14:33 and John 4:21 we know the other two were James and John. This was the inner circle of leadership among the disciples (cf. Matt. 17:1; Mark 5:37). They were present with Jesus on several special occasions when the other disciples were not. Apparently this led to both special training and jealousy on the part of the other disciples. Exactly why Jesus had an inner circle is uncertain. The list of the Twelve is always in four groupings of three. The groups never change. It is possible that the groups formed a rotating schedule for the disciples to go home periodically and check on their families.

▣ "began to be grieved and distressed" These were strong terms in Greek (cf. Mark 14:33). We are on very holy ground here in the garden as we see the Son of God in what may have been His most vulnerable human moment. Jesus must have related this account to His disciples after His resurrection. Apparently it was meant to be helpful for those who face temptation and for those who seek to understand the agony and cost of the Calvary experience.

26:38 "My soul is deeply grieved, to the point of death" This was an Old Testament idiom (cf. Ps. 42:5; Jonah 6:9), which expressed the tremendous intensity which was involved in the redemption of sinful mankind. Something of the struggle can be seen in the parallel of Luke 22:43-44, which records that an angel came to minister to Him and He sweat great drops of blood. The victory over the evil one was won here in the garden. The insidiousness of Satan's temptation in Matthew 4 and of Peter's supposedly helpful, but extremely destructive, comments in Matt. 16:22, are fully revealed in this passage.

÷MATTHEW 26:39-41

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:39-41
 39And He went a little beyond them, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as You will." 40And He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, "So, you men could not keep watch with Me for one hour? 41Keep watching and praying that you may not enter into temptation; the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak."

26:39 "And He went a little beyond them, and fell on His face and prayed" The beautiful contemporary pictures of Jesus kneeling in the Garden of Gethsemane by a rock are moving, but inaccurate. The Greek text here asserts that He was completely prostrate in agony and distress, even to the point of physical death, during these moments. It has often been asked what terrified Jesus so much. Some have speculated that it was the fear of physical death, or His fear that the disciples could not lead the Church. Jesus, who had known intimacy with the Father moment by moment, was on the verge of having to experience the last great aspect of human lostnessMatthew often depicts Jesus as the second Moses, the new law-giver. Jesus brings the new exodus from sinMatthew often depicts Jesus as the second Moses, the new law-giver. Jesus brings the new exodus from sin–a breach of fellowship with God. It was this breach of fellowship and having to carry the burden of sin for all people of all time that terrified the Son. If we can see this kind of intense anguish on the part of Jesus of Nazareth, the unique Son of God, how awesome and destructive must separation from fellowship with God really be!

▣ "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me" There are several extremely important aspects to this phrase. From Mark's parallel we understand that He used the Aramaic term "Abba," which referred to an intimate, family relationship. It is often translated "Daddy." In a few brief hours this will change to "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?" (cf. Matt. 27:46).  The phrase "if it is possible" (first class conditional sentence) is found in the Markan parallel (cf. Mark 14:36) in the phrase "all things are possible." The slight variation between Matt. 26:35 and 42 and the variation between the Gospels do not minimize the fact that, from Matt. 26:44, we realize that Jesus prayed the same prayer three times.

The concept of "the cup" in biblical usage reflected an Old Testament symbol for the destiny of a person, usually in the sense of the judgment of God (cf. Ps. 75:8; Isa. 51:17,22; Jer. 25:15,16,27,28). The cup of judgment that God had prepared for rebellious mankind was consumed to the dredges by the innocent Son of God (cf. 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13).

▣ "yet not as I will, but as You will" The pronouns "I" and "You" are in the emphatic position in the Greek. This, combined with the use of first class and Third class conditional sentences in Matt. 26:42, shows us the intent of the Son in His prayer. Though His human nature cries out for deliverance, His heart is set on fulfilling the will of the Father in substitutionary atonement (cf. Mark 10:45).

26:40 "And He came to the disciples and found them sleeping" Before we are too quick to condemn the disciples, let's note that in Luke 22:45 the phrase, "they were asleep from sorrow," describes that they were unable to bear the pain of Jesus' prophecy about His own death and their subsequent scattering. Though Jesus longed to have human fellowship and intercession at this time of ultimate crisis in His life, He had to face this moment alone, and He faced it for all believers!

26:41 "keep watching and praying that you may not enter into temptation" These are both present imperatives. There must be constant vigil! Temptation is an ongoing reality (cf. Matt. 4:11; Luke 4:13; Romans 7).

There have been several theories as to what "temptation" referred in this context

1. to the disciples sleeping instead of praying

2. to the disciples desertion of Jesus in Matt. 26:56

3. to Peter's denial in Matt. 26:69-75

4. to governmental or religious trials (cf. Matt. 5:10-12; John 9:22; 16:2)

The term "temptation" (peirasmos) had the connotation of "to tempt or try with the goal of destruction" (see Special Topic: Greek Terms for "Testing" and  Their Connotations, cf. Matt. 6:13; Luke 11:4; James 1:13). It is often contrasted with another Greek term for test (dokimazo) which had the connotation of "to try or tempt with a view toward strengthening." However, these connotations are not always present in every context. Theologically it can be said that God does not test or tempt His children to destroy them but He does provide opportunities for spiritual growth through trials (cf. Gen. 22:1; Exod. 16:4; 20:20; Duet. 8:2,16; Matt. 4; Luke 4; Heb. 5:8). However, He always provides a way through (cf. 1 Cor. 10:13).

▣ "the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak" This was the self-confession of Jesus who knows fully our humanity and its weaknesses (cf. Heb. 4:15). And, knowing us, He loved us and died for us (cf. Rom. 5:8) and now intercedes for us (cf. Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25; 9:24; 1 John 2:1). Hallelujah!

÷MATTHEW 26:42-46

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:42-46
 42He went away again a second time and prayed, saying, "My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Your will be done." 43Again He came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy. 44And He left them again, and went away and prayed a third time, saying the same thing once more. 45Then He came to the disciples and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and resting? Behold, the hour is at hand and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46Get up, let us be going; behold, the one who betrays Me is at hand!"

26:42 "if this cannot pass away unless I drink it" This is a combination of a first class conditional and a third class conditional sentence. It implies that Jesus knew it was God's will that He go to the cross, but He knew He could express His concern to the Father. It is good to know that God will not reject us because of our fears and confusion, but will work with us in love and faith as He worked with Jesus. We cannot even pray ourselves out of the will of God.

26:44 "prayed a third time, saying the same thing once more" Jesus prayed three times. This is similar to Paul's three prayers concerning this thorn in the flesh (2 Cor. 12:8). There is something of the Hebrew idiom of emphasis in the threefold repetition (cf. Isa. 6:3; Jer. 7:4). We can bring to God our concerns any time, as often as we feel the need.

26:45

NASB, NKJV,
TEV"Are you still sleeping and resting?"
NRSV"Are you still sleeping and taking your rest?"
NJB"You can sleep on now and have your rest."

It is hard to interpret this Greek idiom. Is it a question? Is it irony? Is it a statement? Is it a command? Although the meaning is uncertain, it is obvious that Jesus has won the victory and He now stands erect, ready to face the night trials, the morning beatings and crucifixion.

▣ "the hour is at hand" "Hour" was a significant idiom used throughout the Gospels, particularly John (cf. Matt. 12:23;13:1,32; 17:1), to describe this moment (cf. Mark 14:35,41). See SPECIAL TOPIC: THE HOUR.

▣ "is being betrayed into the hands of sinners" This is the fulfilled prophecy of Matt. 16:21.

÷MATTHEW 26:47-50

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:47-50
 47While He was still speaking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came up accompanied by a large crowd with swords and clubs, who came from the chief priests and elders of the people. 48Now he who was betraying Him gave them a sign, saying, "Whomever I kiss, He is the one; seize Him." 49Immediately Judas went to Jesus and said, "Hail, Rabbi!" and kissed Him. 50And Jesus said to him, "Friend, do what you have come for." Then they came and laid hands on Jesus and seized Him.

26:47 "Judas, one of the Twelve, came up accompanied by a large crowd with swords and clubs" There has been much discussion about the motivation of Judas. It must be said that this remains uncertain. His kiss of Jesus in Matt. 26:49 either (1) was a sign to the soldiers that this was the man to arrest (cf. Matt. 26:48) or (2) lends support to the modern theory that He was trying to force Jesus' hand to act, (cf. Matt. 27:4). Other Gospel passages state that he was a robber and an unbeliever from the beginning (cf. John 12:6).

From Luke 22:52 we know the makeup of this crowd. There were Roman soldiers involved because they were the only ones who could legally carry swords. Also, the Temple police were involved because they usually carried clubs. Representatives from the Sanhedrin were also present at the arrest (cf. Matt. 26:47, 51).

26:48 "kiss" This was a sign of respect and greetings among rabbis. In Matt. 26:49 Judas calls Jesus "Rabbi" ("my teacher").

26:50

NASB"Friend, do what you have come for"
NKJV"Friend, why have you come"
NRSV"Friend, do what you are here to do"
TEV"Be quick about it, friend"
NJB"My friend, do what you are here for"

There has been some disagreement over the meaning of this Greek idiom. It could be

1. a question (NKJV)

2. a reproach (TEV)

3. an idiom for "do what you came to do" (NASB, NRSV, JB)

The American Standard Version and the Williams translation agree that it is a statement of irony or purposeful understatement. However, King James and the Revised Standard Version see it as a question, also of veiled irony. The use of the term "friend" may have been an attempt to remind Judas of their discussions in the Upper Room (cf. Matt. 26:23) or an idiom of sarcasm (cf. Matt. 20:13; 22:12).

÷MATTHEW 26:51-54

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:51-54
 51And behold, one of those who were with Jesus reached and drew out his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear. 52Then Jesus said to him, "Put your sword back into its place; for all those who take up the sword shall perish by the sword. 53Or do you think that I cannot appeal to My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels? 54How then will the Scriptures be fulfilled, which say that it must happen this way?"

26:51 From the parallel in John 18:10 and Luke 22:50-51, we know that this was Peter and the servant was Malchus. The disciples had previously been admonished to buy swords (cf. Luke 22:36-38), but obviously, they had misunderstood Jesus' true meaning concerning this issue. It must be said on Peter's behalf that he was fully willing to die for his Lord at this point. In the face of great odds, he drew one of two swords. But, again, the inappropriateness and impulsiveness of his actions characterized his personality.

26:52 "all those who take up the sword shall perish by the sword" This was a cultural proverb (cf. Rev. 13:10). It was not meant to be taken as a literal truth in every individual example, but a characteristic truth that is obvious in itself. This is also like the biblical book of Proverbs. It may relate to the fact that Jesus was being arrested as a common criminal. His disciples then are also seen as bandits and robbers, those who carry swords! See Special Topic: Destruction (apollumi).

26:53 Jesus knew who He was (cf. John 13:1). He knew the resources of His Father, but now He was resolved to die (cf. John 10:17-18)!

▣ "more than twelve legions of angels" A Roman legion had 6,000 men, but the term was also an idiom for several thousand.

see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE NUMBER TWELVE.

26:54, 56 "How then will the Scriptures be fulfilled" If this phrase in Matt. 26:54 relates to the same phrase in Matt. 26:56, then this is a general statement that everything has happened according to a predetermined divine plan (cf. Luke 22:22; Acts 2:23; 3:18; 4:28). We know that John accompanied Jesus through the trials and the crucifixion and that Peter followed at a distance (cf. Matt. 26:58). Therefore, this is a general reference going back to Isa. 53:6. Jesus knew that events were proceeding just as they should to fulfill the Father's purpose.

It is possible that this refers to the sufferings Jesus had foretold the disciples several times (first in Matt. 16:21-28), involving a suffering, rejected Messiah (i.e., Gen. 3:15; Psalm 22; Isaiah 53; Zech. 9; 12).

÷MATTHEW 26:55-56

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:55-56
 55At that time Jesus said to the crowds, "Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me as you would against a robber? Every day I used to sit in the temple teaching and you did not seize Me. 56But all this has taken place to fulfill the Scriptures of the prophets." Then all the disciples left Him and fled.

26:55 Jesus brings into clear light the plotting of the religious leaders (cf. Matt. 12:14; John 11:53). They were seeking an opportunity to arrest Him away from the crowds of pilgrims and followers (cf. Matt. 26:4; Luke 22:2).

NASB, NKJV"robber"
NJB"brigand"

The term denotes a violent, lawless person (cf. Luke 10:30). It was later used in Josephus for an insurrectionist, like Barabbas (cf. Matt. 27:16-17).

÷MATTHEW 26:57-58

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:57-58
 57Those who had seized Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas, the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together. 58But Peter was following Him at a distance as far as the courtyard of the high priest, and entered in, sat down with the officers to see the outcome.

26:57 "Those who had seized Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas, the high priest" From the parallel in John 18:12, we realize that He was taken first to the residence of Annas, who was really the power behind the office. Apparently Annas and Caiaphas lived in the same home. Selected members of the Sanhedrin were already being assembled there. The phrase, "the scribes and the elders," along with the High Priest, describes the full designation of the Sanhedrin.

SPECIAL TOPIC: Illegalities of the Sanhedrin's Night Trial, Matt. 26:57-68

÷MATTHEW 26:59-64

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:59-64
 59Now the chief priests and the whole Council kept trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus, so that they might put Him to death. 60They did not find any, even though many false witnesses came forward. But later on two came forward, 61and said, " This man stated, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God and to rebuild it in three days.'" 62The high priest stood up and said to Him, "Do You not answer? What is it that these men are testifying against You?" 63But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest said to Him, "I adjure You by the living God, that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God." 64Jesus said to him, "You have said it yourself; nevertheless I tell you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven."

26:59 "kept trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus" This seems to imply that they were looking for two witnesses who could agree on some charge because OT legal precedent required two witnesses to condemn a person (cf. Num. 35:30; Deut. 17:6; 19:15).

The Sanhedrin could not find two consistent testimonies against Jesus (Matt. 26:60-61). Finally they found two similar testimonies (cf. Mark 14:59) connected with Jesus' statement about destroying the temple (cf. John 2:19).

There were many illegal elements in this night trial (see Special Topic: Illegalities of the Sanhedrin's Night Trial). These Jewish leaders would have rationalized this by illegally sacrificing this one man to save the whole nation from Roman retaliation.

26:61 This is an allusion to Jesus' statement recorded in John 2:19, although He may have made the statement often. He is referring to the coming destruction of the temple in a.d. 70 by Titus and His new resurrection body (cf. Matt. 16:21; 17:23; 20:19), which will be the new focus of worship for YHWH's people. The sacrificial system is replaced by the once-and-for-all sacrifice of Christ (cf. Hebrews). The central focus of acceptance and worship has changed! Jesus is the new temple (cf. John 2:19-21), as are His followers (cf. 1 Cor. 3:16-17; 2 Cor. 6:19).

26:63 "But Jesus kept silent" This was also true during his later trial which was recorded in Matt 27:12, 14. This fulfilled the prophecy of Isa. 53:7.

▣ "And the high priest said to Him, 'I adjure You by the living God, that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God'" Self-incrimination by means of an oath was illegal but effective, for Jesus would not be silent in the face of an oath in the name of YHWH. The name "YHWH," from Exod. 3:14, was from the Hebrew verb "to be," which means the "ever-living, only-living God" (cf. Matt. 16:16). It was the covenant name for the God of Israel.

These leaders recognized that Jesus, at least by His words and deeds, was claiming to be the promised Messiah (note how the titles "Messiah" and "Son of God" are equated). They saw Him as one of many false Messiah's because He was not committed to the oral traditions and their authority.

26:64

NASB"You have said it yourself"
NKJV"It is as you said"
NRSV"You have said so"
TEV"So you say"
JB"The words are your own"
NJB"It is you who say it"

This same affirmative idiom is found in Matt. 26:25. It was somewhat ambiguous. Possibly Jesus was saying, "Yes, I am the Messiah, but not in the sense you think" (cf. Mark 14:62).

▣ "I tell you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven" These Hebrew scriptural idioms affirmed His self-understanding. Being at the right hand of the power (i.e., YHWH) was an allusion to Ps. 110:1. Coming on the clouds in heaven was an allusion to Dan. 7:13 (cf. Mark 13:26; Matt. 24:30; and Rev. 1:7). With these OT phrases, Jesus was asserting unambiguously His full and divine Messiahship. He knew this would lead to His death for blasphemy (i.e., claiming to be equal with God).

÷MATTHEW 26:65-66

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:65-66
 65Then the high priest tore his robes and said, " He has blasphemed! What further need do we have of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy; 66what do you think?" They answered, "He deserves death!"

26:65 "Then the high priest tore his robes" This was a sign of a deeply disturbed spirit caused by the blasphemy (cf. Acts 14:14). The penalty for blasphemy from Lev. 24:15 was death. Jesus deserved to die on the basis of Deut. 13:1-3 and 18:22 if He was not the Coming One, the Messiah, the Son of God, the Savior of the world. There is no middle ground here. Either He is who He claimed to be or He is a blasphemer who deserved death (cf. Josh McDowell's, Evidence That Demands a Verdict).

÷MATTHEW 26:67-68

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:67-68
 67Then they spat in His face and beat Him with their fists; and others slapped Him, 68and said, "Prophesy to us, You Christ; who is the one who hit You?"

26:67-68 It is uncertain whether these acts were perpetrated by the members of the Sanhedrin themselves and by their attendants. Mark 14:65 states they blindfolded Him, hit Him, and demanded He tell them who did it! This may be a fulfillment of Isa. 53:3.

÷MATTHEW 26:69-75

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: MATTHEW 26:69-75
 69Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard, and a servant-girl came to him and said, "You too were with Jesus the Galilean." 70But he denied it before them all, saying, "I do not know what you are talking about." 71When he had gone out to the gateway, another servant-girl saw him and said to those who were there, " This man was with Jesus of Nazareth." 72And again he denied it with an oath, "I do not know the man." 73A little later the bystanders came up and said to Peter, "Surely you too are one of them; for even the way you talk gives you away." 74Then he began to curse and swear, "I do not know the man!" And immediately a rooster crowed. 75And Peter remembered the words which Jesus had said, "Before a rooster crows, you will deny Me three times." And he went out and wept bitterly.

26:69-73 The exact order of these three accusations differs from Gospel to Gospel. The fact that Peter denied Jesus three times with successive emphasis is common to all of the accounts. The fact that they differ is evidence of eyewitness accounts, not historical inaccuracies.

26:71 "Jesus of Nazareth" See Special Topic:: Jesus the Nazarene.

26:72 "I do not know the man" This Greek idiom was a veiled statement of contempt.

26:73 "for even the way you talk gives you away" Those who lived in Galilee could be recognized by the differences in accent and pronunciation of the guttural sounds of the Aramaic language.

26:74 "Then he began to curse and swear, 'I do not know the man'" This again was an idiom which reflected contempt and is tragic in that he used God's name in affirming this lie. If anyone deserved to be damned, it is Peter for, in the face of such love, forgiveness, prophecy and miracles, he denied, three times with vehemence and an oath, the One whom he claimed to love. If Peter can be saved, anyone can be saved! The only difference between Peter and Judas was that Judas did not turn back to Jesus in faith.

▣ "And immediately a rooster crowed" This must have been a Roman rooster for the Jews were not allowed to keep chickens in Jerusalem because they caused the ground to be unholy (see note on Mtt. 26:34).

From Luke 22:61, we know that Jesus looked at Peter. This implies that Annas and Caiaphas lived in the same house and that Jesus could either see the courtyard or He was being transferred between the two residences.

26:75 "And he went out and wept bitterly" Peter was fulfilling prophecy in his denials and giving hope for all believers who have denied Jesus with their tongue, with their lives and with their priorities. There is hope for anyone who turns back to Him in faith (cf. John 21).

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Why did Jesus go to a place that Judas knew?

2. What so distressed Jesus in the garden that He felt he was almost going to die?

3. What is Jesus really asking God to do in this thrice repeated prayer?

4. Why did Judas bring such a large crowd to arrest Jesus?

5. Why did Jesus condemn Himself by His obvious statement in Matt. 26:64?

6. Why do the Gospel accounts differ as to the order of Peter's denials?

 

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