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1 Chronicles 14

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

 NASB  NKJV  NRSV  TEV   NJB
(LXX versing)
David's Family Enlarged David Established at Jerusalem David's Family David's Activities in Jerusalem David in Jerusalem, His Palace, His Children
14:1-2 14:1-2 14:1-2 14:1-2 14:1-2
14:3-7 14:3-7 14:3-7 14:3-7 14:3-7
Philistines Defeated The Philistines Defeated David's Defeat of the Philistines Victory Over the Philistines Victories Over the Philistines
14:8-12 14:8-12 14:8-12 14:8-10a 14:8-12
14:10b
14:11-12
14:13-17 14:13-17 14:13-17 14:13-17 14:13-16
14:17

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Bible Interpretation Seminar")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

  1. First paragraph
  2. Second paragraph
  3. Etc.

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 14:1-2
1Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David with cedar trees, masons and carpenters, to build a house for him. 2And David realized that the Lord had established him as king over Israel, and that his kingdom was highly exalted, for the sake of His people Israel.

14:1 "Hiram king of Tyre" This was the king of Phoenicia from 969-936 B.C. (Albright). He provided materials and artisans for

  1. David's palace ‒ here; 2 Sam. 5:11
  2. Solomon's palace ‒ 1 9:1,10
  3. Solomon's Temple ‒ 1 Kings 5; 9:10-14

Josephus also gives information about Hiram (cf. Antiq. 7.3.3; 7.12.4; 8.6.6,7,9).

His name is spelled several different ways.

  1. Hiram ‒ 2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Kgs. 5:1ff; 9:11
  2. Hirom ‒ 1 Kgs. 5:10,18; Josephus
  3. Huram ‒ 2 Chr. 2:3,11

Because most of Hiram's activities occur in Solomon's reign, some scholars put David's palace construction late in his reign (i.e., Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol. 4, p. 382). We must just admit we have no good extra-biblical, historical information about Hiram. The Chronicles obviously are not a chronologically based history but a theologically based reconstruction.

14:2 "the Lord had established him as king over Israel" This VERB (BDB 465 I, KB 464, Hiphil PERFECT) is used of divine appointments of

  1. covenant kings (cf. 2 Sam. 7:11-13; 1 Chr. 22:10; Ps. 89:5)
    1. Saul ‒ 1 Sam. 13:13-14
    2. David ‒ 2 Sam. 5:12; 1 Chr. 17:11
    3. Solomon ‒ 1 Kgs. 2:24; 1 Chr. 28:7
    4. Rehoboam ‒ 2 Chr. 12:1
    5. Jehoshaphat ‒ 2 Chr. 17:3-5
  2. royal throne
    1. Solomon's ‒ 1 Chr. 22:10
    2. YHWH's ‒ Ps. 103:19-22

▣ "for the sake of His people" David's kingdom was established to fulfill YHWH's plan.

SPECIAL TOPIC: YHWH'S ETERNAL REDEMPTIVE PLAN

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 14:3-7
3Then David took more wives at Jerusalem, and David became the father of more sons and daughters. 4These are the names of the children born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, 5Ibhar, Elishua, Elpelet, 6Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, 7Elishama, Beeliada and Eliphelet.

14:3 "Jerusalem" The Chronicler focuses on

  1. all Israel (1 Chronicles 12-13)
  2. the tabernacle/temple (ark)
  3. Jerusalem (1 Chr. 11:4-9)
  4. David and his seed (2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17)

Many wives and children were a cultural sign of blessings (i.e., Jacob's family) and power in the ANE. This should not be used as a biblical evidence for polygamy. Even the Mosaic law rejects this multiplication of wives (cf. Deut. 17:17). When Solomon follows David's lead, he will suffer great loss (cf. 1 Kgs. 11:4-8)!

14:4-7 This is parallel to the list in 1 Chr. 3:5-8 but with some of the names spelled differently. The list seems to come from 2 Sam. 5:14-16 but with two additional names.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 14:8-12
8When the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over all Israel, all the Philistines went up in search of David; and David heard of it and went out against them. 9Now the Philistines had come and made a raid in the valley of Rephaim. 10David inquired of God, saying, "Shall I go up against the Philistines? And will You give them into my hand?" Then the Lord said to him, "Go up, for I will give them into your hand." 11So they came up to Baal-perazim, and David defeated them there; and David said, "God has broken through my enemies by my hand, like the breakthrough of waters." Therefore they named that place Baal-perazim. 12They abandoned their gods there; so David gave the order and they were burned with fire.

14:8 "the Philistines" Two separate battles are highlighted (1 Chr. 14:8-12,13-16). This is a striking reversal of the military failures of King Saul to defeat this ethnic entity.

▣ "anointed" See SPECIAL TOPIC: "ANOINTING" IN THE BIBLE.

▣ "all Israel" This is a recurrent theme of the Chronicler (cf. 1 Chr. 11:1-3; 12:38; 13:2-8). Israel is unified again!

14:9 "the valley of Rephaim" See note at 1 Chr. 11:15.

14:10 "David inquired of God" This showed two things.

  1. David is different from Saul (cf. 1 Chr. 13:3; also note Jos. 9:14; Isa. 30:2)
  2. David has a respect and heart for God (cf. 1 Chr. 12:33,38)

He seeks God's will, not his own, for Israel.

How did David inquire of the Lord?

  1. by the priest's use of the Urim and Thummim, cf. Num. 27:21
  2. by a prophet (i.e., Nathan and Gad)
  3. by a physical sign
  4. by a dream/vision

The "inquiring" is paralleled in 2 Sam. 5:19 and 23.

SPECIAL TOPIC: URIM AND THUMMIM

14:11 "God has broken through" See note on this VERB at 1 Chr. 13:11.

▣ "like the break-through of waters" This could refer to

  1. the parting of the Red Sea
  2. the parting of the Jordan River
  3. as the Philistines "flooded" the valley, now David's troops broke through like a flood
  4. just an idiom of quick and complete victory

SPECIAL TOPIC: WATERS

14:12 The Philistine (like the sons of Eli) carried a physical religious item into battle hoping it (they) would give victory. But idols cannot see, hear, speak or move!

In Exod. 23:24; 34:13 the Israelites are to totally destroy the worship objects of Canaan. Later, this was expanded to burning (cf. Deut. 7:5,25; 9:21; 12:3). Burning had a cultic sense of purifying. The land of Israel must be purified of idolatry.

2 Samuel 5:21 does not mention David burning the idols. However, some LXX MSS do include this. Possibly the Chronicler had a different text of Samuel then the MT.

SPECIAL TOPIC: ISRAEL'S MANDATED RESPONSE TO CANAANITE FERTILITY WORSHIP

SPECIAL TOPIC: TEXTUAL CRITICISM

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 14:13-17
13The Philistines made yet another raid in the valley. 14David inquired again of God, and God said to him, "You shall not go up after them; circle around behind them and come at them in front of the balsam trees. 15It shall be when you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the balsam trees, then you shall go out to battle, for God will have gone out before you to strike the army of the Philistines." 16David did just as God had commanded him, and they struck down the army of the Philistines from Gibeon even as far as Gezer. 17Then the fame of David went out into all the lands; and the Lord brought the fear of him on all the nations.

14:14-15 This is very specific information which could not come from the Urim and Thummim.

14:15 "marching" This is the only occurrence of the NOUN (BDB 857), although the VERB occurs often. This "sound of marching" could be a supernatural event, like 2 Kgs. 7:6.

14:16 "David did just as God had commanded him" This is a major theological emphasis. David had a whole heart for YHWH. Obey God's Word!

SPECIAL TOPIC: KEEP

▣ "Gibeon" In 2 Sam. 5:25 this city is named "Geba" (cf. 1 Sam. 13:3; 2 Sam. 5:25; 1 Kgs. 15:22; 2 Kgs. 23:8; 1 Chr. 6:60; 8:6; 2 Chr. 16:6; Neh. 11:31; 12:29; see maps #88,89 in the Macmillan Bible Atlas, 3rd edition, p. 70). The LXX also has "Gibeon."

14:17 "into all the lands" This is a hyperbole but reflects the fame/fear of David among the surrounding ANE nations.

This phraseology is reminiscent of the "holy war" terminology of the conquest (cf. Joshua).

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought-provoking, not definitive.

  1. Why does it bother moderns when biblical authors do not record events in chronological order?
  2. Did the King of Tyre live mostly in David's day or Solomon's?
  3. Was Hiram a pagan or a follower of YHWH?
  4. Why list David's children in Jerusalem and not Hebron?
  5. What is the theological significance of 1 Chr. 14:10?
  6. How did God reveal His will to David?

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