Home  |  Old Testament Studies  |  1 Chronicles Table of Contents  |  Previous Section   |  Next Section   |

1 Chronicles 22

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

 NASB  NKJV  NRSV  TEV   NJB
(LXX versing)
David Prepares for Temple Building David Prepares to Build the Temple David Makes the Preparations for the Construction of the Temple Preparations for Building the Temple Preparations for the Building of the Temple
22:1 22:1-5
22:2-5 22:2-5 22:2-5 22:2-4
Solomon Charged with the Task 22:5-16
22:6-16 22:6-16 22:6-16 22:6-10
22:11-16
22:17-19 22:17-19 22:17-19 22:17-23:1 22:17-19

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Bible Interpretation Seminar")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

  1. First paragraph
  2. Second paragraph
  3. Etc.

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

  1. Much of the detail of this chapter is unique (i.e., David's private words to Solomon and his public admonition to the leaders). It is obvious that the Chronicler used a copy of the biblical book of Kings as one of his sources.

  2. The Chronicler lived in the post-exilic period. The rebuilding of the temple was a major concern. He used the life and message of David to encourage the people of his day to also support the second temple.

  3. Notice the recurrent connection between covenant obedience and rest/peace/prosperity (i.e., Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 27-30).

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 22:1
1Then David said, "This is the house of the Lord God, and this is the altar of burnt offering for Israel."

22:1 This verse should go with 1 Chronicles 21 (see NRSV, TEV, NJB).

NASB, LXX  "This is the house. . ."
NKJV  "This is the house. . ."
NRSV  "Here shall be the house. . ."
TEV  "This is where the Temple. . ."
NJB  "This is to be the house. . ."
JPSOA  "Here will be the House. . ."

The difference in these translations comes from a DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE (BDB 260) and an EMPHATIC NOUN (BDB 214).

▣ "the altar of burnt offering" This refers to the altar David had just built on Ornan's threshing floor (i.e., Mt. Moriah, cf. 2 Chr. 3:1 and Josephus, Antiq. 7.13.4), which later became the site of Solomon's temple.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 22:2-5
2So David gave orders to gather the foreigners who were in the land of Israel, and he set stonecutters to hew out stones to build the house of God. 3David prepared large quantities of iron to make the nails for the doors of the gates and for the clamps, and more bronze than could be weighed; 4and timbers of cedar logs beyond number, for the Sidonians and Tyrians brought large quantities of cedar timber to David. 5David said, "My son Solomon is young and inexperienced, and the house that is to be built for the Lord shall be exceedingly magnificent, famous and glorious throughout all lands. Therefore now I will make preparation for it." So David made ample preparations before his death.

22:2 "the foreigners" Apparently this refers to

  1. skilled workers from King Hiram of Tyre who built David's palace (cf. 2 Sam. 5:11) and now Solomon's Temple (cf. 1 Kgs. 5:6,18; 2 Chr. 2:12-14)
  2. forced laborers from those nations defeated by David (cf. 1 Kgs. 9:20-22; 2 Chr. 2:17-18; 8:7-10)
  3. forced laborers from the tribes of Israel mentioned in 1 Kgs. 5:13-16; 11:28

All three groups are mentioned in 1 Kgs. 5:19.

Solomon's temple was basically a design common in Phoenicia.

▣ "the land of Israel" Surprisingly this phrase (the land [erets] of Israel) is used by the Chronicler only four times to denote a godly reign throughout the Promised Land.

  1. David ‒ 1 Chr. 22:2
  2. Solomon ‒ 2 Chr. 2:17
  3. Hezekiah ‒ 2 Chr. 30:25
  4. Josiah ‒ 2 Chr. 34:7

22:3 "large quantities of iron" Iron technology was unique to the Philistines (cf. 1 Sam. 13:19-22). So, the fact that David had gathered much iron demonstrates the subjugation of the Philistines (cf. 1 Chr. 18:11).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 22:6-16
6Then he called for his son Solomon, and charged him to build a house for the Lord God of Israel. 7David said to Solomon, "My son, I had intended to build a house to the name of the Lord my God. 8But the word of the Lord came to me, saying, 'You have shed much blood and have waged great wars; you shall not build a house to My name, because you have shed so much blood on the earth before Me. 9Behold, a son will be born to you, who shall be a man of rest; and I will give him rest from all his enemies on every side; for his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quiet to Israel in his days. 10He shall build a house for My name, and he shall be My son and I will be his father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel forever.' 11Now, my son, the Lord be with you that you may be successful, and build the house of the Lord your God just as He has spoken concerning you. 12Only the Lord give you discretion and understanding, and give you charge over Israel, so that you may keep the law of the Lord your God. 13Then you will prosper, if you are careful to observe the statutes and the ordinances which theLord commanded Moses concerning Israel. Be strong and courageous, do not fear nor be dismayed. 14Now behold, with great pains I have prepared for the house of the Lord 100,000 talents of gold and 1,000,000 talents of silver, and bronze and iron beyond weight, for they are in great quantity; also timber and stone I have prepared, and you may add to them. 15Moreover, there are many workmen with you, stonecutters and masons of stone and carpenters, and all men who are skillful in every kind of work. 16Of the gold, the silver and the bronze and the iron there is no limit. Arise and work, and may the Lord be with you."

22:5 Notice how David characterizes the temple.

  1. exceedingly magnificent
  2. famous
  3. glorious

Its renown is to be throughout all lands (i.e., Isa. 2:2-4; 56:6-8). This temple was for both Israel and the world (cf. 1 Kings 8). It showed the glory of Israel's God!

SPECIAL TOPIC: YHWH'S ETERNAL REDEMPTIVE PLAN

22:7 "to the name of the Lord my God" This is repeated in 1 Chr. 22:10,19.

SPECIAL TOPIC: "THE NAME" OF YHWH (OT)

22:8 The reason for David not being allowed to build the temple was his violent reign (cf. 1 Chr. 17:4; 28:3). From Deut. 12:10 the added element of "rest" from all your enemies is stressed. David set the stage in two ways.

  1. rest from enemies
  2. provisions for the construction (i.e., 1 Chr. 22:14-16)

22:9 Solomon's reign will be characterized as a period of "rest" (NASB). The MT has a play on the word "peace."

  1. a man of peace (BDB 629)
  2. YHWH will give him peace (BDB 628, KB 679, Hiphil PERFECT with waw)
  3. YHWH will give (BDB 678,, KB 733, Qal IMPERFECT) him peace (BDB 1022)
  4. YHWH will give him quiet (BDB 1052)

SPECIAL TOPIC: PEACE (OT)

▣ "his name shall be Solomon" His name (BDB 1024) means "peace" (BDB 1022). This special divine naming is similar to the angel in Matt. 1:21 naming Jesus (Aramaic) Jeshua (Hebrew), meaning YHWH ‒ salvation. A VERB must be supplied to link the two NOUNS (i.e., "is" or "brings," etc.), which is common in Hebrew names.

22:10 This reflects the great promises of 2 Samuel 7 and 1 Chronicles 17 (also note 1 Chr. 28:5-7). This surely reflects an eschatological orientation!

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE SON OF GOD

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE KINGDOM OF GOD

SPECIAL TOPIC: FOREVER ('olam)

SPECIAL TOPIC: OT TITLES OF THE SPECIAL COMING ONE

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE DEITY OF CHRIST FROM THE OT

22:11 "the Lord be with you" This covenant phrase reappears in 1 Chr. 22:16 and again in 1 Chr. 28:20. It first appears in Moses' encouragement to Joshua (cf. Deut. 31:6,8,23; Jos. 1:5,9). YHWH's personal presence "was" the victory and prosperity! But note, covenant obedience is crucial to maintain His presence (cf. 1 Chr. 22:11,12,13; 29:19). It is a conditional covenant (i.e., Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 28).

SPECIAL TOPIC: COVENANT

22:12-13 These verses clearly and repeatedly emphasize the conditional nature of the covenant.

  1. the JUSSIVE of 1 Chr. 22:11a (cf. 1 Chr. 29:19)
  2. that you may keep the law, 1 Chr. 22:12
  3. that he may have discretion and understanding given by YHWH (BDB 678, KB 733, Qal IMPERFECT used in a JUSSIVE sense
  4. if you are careful to observe the statutes and ordinances, 1 Chr. 22:13

YHWH wants a ruler and a people who reflect His character to a pagan world to draw them to Himself.

SPECIAL TOPIC: KEEP

SPECIAL TOPIC: YHWH'S ETERNAL REDEMPTIVE PLAN

▣ "law. . .statutes and ordinances" See SPECIAL TOPIC: TERMS FOR GOD'S REVELATION.

22:13 "Then you will prosper" This VERB (BDB 852, KB 1026, Hiphil IMPERFECT) denotes two truths.

  1. YHWH is the source of prosperity
  2. prosperity is linked to covenant obedience, Jos. 1:18; 1 Chr. 22:13; Ps. 1:1-3; Dan. 1:17
  3. it comes to those who seek Him diligently, 2 Chr. 15:2; 26:5

The wicked prosper for only a short season (cf. Psalm 37; Jer. 5:20-29; 12:1-4; Dan. 11:27).

SPECIAL TOPIC: WEALTH

▣ "Be strong and courageous" These are both Qal IMPERATIVES.

  1. BDB 304, KB 302
  2. BDB 54, KB 65

Moses spoke these same commands to

  1. all Israel, Deut. 31:6
  2. Joshua, Deut. 31:7

YHWH spoke these things to Joshua in Deut. 31:23; Jos. 1:6,7,9.

▣ "do not fear nor be dismayed" These are both Qal IMPERFECTS used in a JUSSIVE sense.

  1. BDB 431, KB 432
  2. BDB 369, KB 365

These words are also found in Jos. 8:1; 10:25; Deut. 1:21; 1 Chr. 28:20; 2 Chr. 20:17.

22:14
NASB, NRSV  "with great pains"
NKJV  "I have taken much trouble"
TEV  "by my efforts"
NJB  "poor as I am"
JPSOA  "by denying myself"
LXX, Targums  "in accordance to my poverty"
REB  "at the cost of some trouble"

The MT has "with great pains" (BDB 777), which usually denotes "affliction" or "poverty." BDB suggests, for this context, "in spite of my frustration" (i.e., David not being allowed to build the temple himself). As a result, David did all he could do to provide what was needed for Solomon to build the temple. Solomon began the temple in the fourth year of his reign (cf. 2 Chr. 3:2). He could not have built the temple without David's provisions.

▣ "talents" The precious metals came mostly from David's military victories (cf. 1 Chr. 18:6-8,10-11).

SPECIAL TOPIC: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES

The number of talents seems too high. Some scholars have suggested

  1. it is literal and comparable to ANE texts (C. F. Keil of Keil and Delitzsch Commentary)
  2. a possible textual transmission (Gleason L. Archer, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties, p. 223)

22:15 "and all men who are skillful in every kind of wood" The ADJECTIVE "skillful," "craftsmen," or "artisan" (DB 314) is from the VERB "to be wise" (BDB 314). It is used of

  1. carpenters ‒ 2 Sam. 5:11; 2 Kgs. 12:11; 1 Chr. 14:1; 22:15; Isa. 44:13
  2. masons ‒ 2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Chr. 22:15
  3. jewelers ‒ Exod. 28:11
  4. workers with metals ‒ 1 Kgs. 7:14; 1 Chr. 22:15-16; 29:5
  5. workers with iron (i.e., blacksmith) ‒ 1 Sam. 13:19; Isa. 44:12

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 22:17-19
17David also commanded all the leaders of Israel to help his son Solomon, saying, 18"Is not the Lord your God with you? And has He not given you rest on every side? For He has given the inhabitants of the land into my hand, and the land is subdued before the Lord and before His people. 19Now set your heart and your soul to seek the Lord your God; arise, therefore, and build the sanctuary of the Lord God, so that you may bring the ark of the covenant of the Lord and the holy vessels of God into the house that is to be built for the name of the Lord."

22:17 "leaders of Israel" Originally this word (BDB 978) referred to

  1. military leaders ‒ Gen. 21:22; Jdgs. 4:7; 7:25; 8:3; 1 Sam. 18:30; 29:3,4,9; 1 Kgs. 15:20
  2. tribal leaders ‒ Num. 21:18; Jdgs. 5:15; 10:18; 1 Chr. 27:22; 28:1; 29:6; 2 Chr. 24:23
  3. royal counselor ‒ Gen. 12:15; Num. 22:8; Isa. 34:12; Amos 2:3
  4. priests ‒ Ezra 8:24,29; 10:5; 1 Chr. 15:16,22; 2 Chr. 35:9; 36:14

Only the immediate context can identify which option.

22:19 David commands Israel to

  1. set your heart and soul to seek the Lord ‒ BDB 678, KB 733, Qal IMPERATIVE

    For "heart" see SPECIAL TOPIC: HEART. For "soul" see note online at Ezek. 18:4.

  2. arise ‒ BDB 877, KB 1086, Qal IMPERATIVE
  3. build the sanctuary (BDB 874, also called "the house," BDB 108) ‒ BDB 124, KB 139, Qal IMPERATIVE

▣ "to seek" This is BDB 205, KB 233, Qal INFINITIVE CONSTRUCT. It denotes a longing and drawing of oneself to God. There are two parallel Hebrew roots (both used in Deut. 4:29 and 1 Chr. 16:10,11; 2 Chr. 15:2,4,12,13,15) used to express this worship desire.

  1. seek ‒ BDB 205, KB 233, cf. Deut. 12:5; 1 Chr. 22:19; 28:8-9; 2 Chr. 12:14; 14:4,7; 17:3-4; 19:3; 20:3; 25:5; 30:19; 31:21; 34:4; Ps. 9:10; 22:26; 24:6; 34:4;10; 69:32; 77:2; 105:4; 119:2,10
  2. seek ‒ BDB 134, KB 152, cf. 1 Chr. 16:10-11; 2 Chr. 7:14; 11:16; 20:4; 22:9; Ps. 27:4,8; 40:10; 70:4; 83:16

▣ "the ark of the covenant" See SPECIAL TOPIC: ARK OF THE COVENANT.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought-provoking, not definitive.

  1. Who did David use for his preparations for the building materials for the temple?
  2. Why could David not build the temple?
  3. What other two major theological passages does 1 Chr. 22:10 refer to?
  4. How is obedience related to peace and prosperity?
  5. How do you explain the seemingly exaggerated amounts of gold and silver in 1 Chr. 22:14?
  6. What does it mean "to seek" the Lord?

Home  |  Old Testament Studies  |  2 Chronicles Table of Contents  |  Previous Section   |  Next Section  |