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1 Chronicles 29

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

 NASB  NKJV  NRSV  TEV   NJB
(LXX versing)
Offering for the Temple Offering for Building the Temple The Investiture of Solomon Gifts for Building the Temple The Voluntary Offerings
29:1-5 29:1-5 29:1-5 29:1-5 29:1-5
29:6-9 29:6-9 29:6-9 29:6-9 29:6-9
David's Prayer David's Praise to God David Praises God David's Thanksgiving
29:10-13 29:10-15
 (10b-25)
29:10-13 29:10-13 29:10a
29:10b-16
29:14-19 29:14-19 29:14-19
29:16-20
29:17-19
29:20 29:20 29:20
29:20-22a
Sacrifices Solomon Anointed King Accession of Solomon and the End of the Reign of David
29:21-22a 29:21-25 29:21-22a 29:21-25
Solomon Again Made King
29:22b-25 29:22b-25 29:22b-25
The Close of David's Reign Summary of David's Reign
29:26-27 29:26-30 29:26-30 29:26-30 29:26-30
Death of David
29:28-30

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Bible Interpretation Seminar")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

  1. First paragraph
  2. Second paragraph
  3. Etc.

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

  1. This chapter records David's prayer to YHWH at the time of the succession of Solomon.

  2. There are several terms used to refer to Israel's Deity.
    1. Elohim, 1 Chr. 29:1,16,18
    2. Eloah, 1 Chr. 29:2,3 (twice), 10,13,17,20 (see SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY, C.)
    3. YHWH, 1 Chr. 29:5,8,9,10,11 (twice), 20 (thrice), 21,22,23,25 (see SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY, D.)
    4. Father, 1 Chr. 29:10 (see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD)

  3. There are several repeated theological themes.
    1. YHWH chose Solomon, 1 Chr. 20:1; 1 Chr. 28:4-6
    2. Solomon must keep the covenant commandments (i.e., conditional covenant, cf. 1 Chr. 29:19; 22:12-13; 28:7-8; see SPECIAL TOPIC: COVENANT and SPECIAL TOPIC: KEEP)
    3. David's assembling materials for the new temple, 1 Chr. 29:2-5; 22:3-5,14-16
    4. the focus on proper whole-hearted commitment to YHWH, 1 Chr. 29:17,19; 28:9; Deut. 18:13; 1 Kgs. 8:61; 15:14; 2 Kgs. 20:3; Isa. 38:3; attitude in worship and spiritual matters is preeminent (cf. Deut. 10:16; 30:6; Jer. 4:4; 9:25-26; Ezek. 44:9); God looks at the heart before the hand!

  4. Notice the description of God in David's prayer (1 Chr. 29:10-19).
    1. He is Israel's Father forever, 1 Chr. 20:10
    2. He has
      1. the greatness (BDB 153)
      2. the power (BDB 150)
      3. the glory (BDB 802)
      4. the victory (BDB 664 I)
      5. the majesty (BDB 217 I)
      6. all in heaven and on earth (1 Chr. 29:11,16)
      7. dominion (lit. kingdom), 1 Chr. 29:11
    3. He is head over all, 1 Chr. 29:11
    4. riches and honor come from Him, 1 Chr. 29:12
    5. He rules over all
      1. power (BDB 470)
      2. might (BDB 150)
    6. He can
      1. make great (BDB 152, INFINITIVE)
      2. give strength (BDB 304, INFINITIVE), 1 Chr. 29:12
    7. He tests the heart (BDB 103, PARTICIPLE), 1 Chr. 29:17
    8. He delights in
      1. uprightness (BDB 449)
      2. integrity of heart (BDB 449), 1 Chr. 29:17
    9. He is actively involved in people's motives
      1. gives a perfect heart
      2. keeps the human heart perfect, 1 Chr. 29:18-19

Wow! What a God!

SPECIAL TOPIC: CHARACTERISTICS OF ISRAEL'S GOD (OT)

SPECIAL TOPIC: CHARACTERISTICS OF ISRAEL'S GOD (NT)

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:1-5
1Then King David said to the entire assembly, "My son Solomon, whom alone God has chosen, is still young and inexperienced and the work is great; for the temple is not for man, but for the Lord God. 2Now with all my ability I have provided for the house of my God the gold for the things of gold, and the silver for the things of silver, and the bronze for the things of bronze, the iron for the things of iron, and wood for the things of wood, onyx stones and inlaid stones, stones of antimony and stones of various colors, and all kinds of precious stones and alabaster in abundance. 3Moreover, in my delight in the house of my God, the treasure I have of gold and silver, I give to the house of my God, over and above all that I have already provided for the holy temple, 4namely, 3,000 talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and 7,000 talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the buildings; 5of gold for the things of gold and of silver for the things of silver, that is, for all the work done by the craftsmen. Who then is willing to consecrate himself this day to the Lord?"

29:1 "the entire assembly" The groups of leaders are mentioned in 1 Chr. 23:2; 28:1. Here, it refers to "all Israel" (cf. 1 Chr. 29:23,25,26), which is a common theme in Chronicles. The post-exilic period was a reunification of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel.

▣ "whom alone God has chosen" See note at 1 Chr. 28:4-6.

Solomon's choice to be king is surprising.

  1. He was not the oldest male child.
  2. He was a son of Bathsheba, which reminded everyone of David's sin, weakness, and abuse of power.

This surely does show God's sovereignty in His choices! Another example of God's sovereignty is that as wives of the Patriarchs were often barren; He had to specifically give them children (i.e., Sarah, Rachel). Also how no other firstborn son of the Patriarchs succeeded his father as leader of the family.

  1. Isaac ‒ not Esau
  2. Jacob ‒ not Reuben
  3. Jesse ‒ not the oldest child

SPECIAL TOPIC: HE CHOSE US

▣ "is still young and inexperienced" David gives this as the reason he did all the preparations for building the temple (cf. 1 Chr. 22:5). The Bible does not give us Solomon's age when he became king. Jewish tradition says he was between 12-14 years old.

NASB  "temple"
NKJV footnote, NJB  "palace"
NRSV, JPSOA footnote  "fortress"
LXX, REB, Peshitta  - omitted -

This term (BDB 108, KB 123, cf. 1 Chr. 29:19) is not the usual term for "temple," but for "fortress" or "citadel" (cf. 2 Chr. 17:12; 27:4; Esther; Neh. 2:8; 7:2; Dan. 8:2). Only here in the OT is it translated "temple."

29:2 Many of the gems mentioned are uncertain.

  1. onyx stone ‒ BDB 995 I, possibly carnelian (NEB) or lapis lazuli (cf. Job 28:16; Ezek. 28:13).
    It was one of the stones on the breastplate of Aaron (cf. Exod. 28:20) and on his shoulders (cf. Exod. 39:27).
  2. inlaid stones ‒ BDB 571 used of the stones of the breastplate of the High Priest, cf. Exod. 25:7; 35:9,27
  3. stones of antimony ‒ BDB 806, KB 918, possibly
    1. dark mortar to set and highlight a colored stone/gem, cf. Isa. 54:11
    2. a particular dark gem stone
  4. stones of various colors ‒ This phrase may refer to geometric patterns of mosaic floors or panels (not pictures); uncut colored stones were often arranged into shapes in the ANE (see IVP, Bible Background Commentary (OT), p. 419).
  5. all kinds of precious stones ‒ these are not specified but are apparently different from the stones in #2
  6. alabaster ‒ BDB 1010, KB 1483; this Egyptian loan word was possibly the "alabaster" of Song of Songs 5:15 or "marble," cf. Esther 1:6. In the NT perfumed oils were kept in stone containers made of this rock (cf. Matt. 26:7; Mark 18:3; Luke 7:37).
    1. calcium carbonate
    2. calcium sulphate (i.e., gypsum)

29:3-5 Another list is found in 1 Chr. 22:3-5,14. This material came from

  1. things taken in war
  2. personal gifts (cf. 1 Chr. 29:6-7)
  3. foreign taxation

The amounts here are different from 1 Chr. 22:14, both of which are unusually high; whether literal or literary hyperbole is uncertain. See Hard Sayings of the Bible, pp. 242-243 or Gleason Archer, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties, pp. 222-223.

29:4 "talents" Some parts of Solomon's temple were overlaid (BDB 376, KB 372, Qal INFINITIVE CONSTRUCT) with gold and silver, but which buildings or parts of building is not specified. 2 Chronicles 3:8-9 says the inside of the Holy of Holies was covered with gold.

SPECIAL TOPIC: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES

29:5 There is a recurrent use of "hand" as an idiom for action.

  1. done, 1 Chr. 29:5 ‒ lit. "by the hand of"
  2. consecrate, 1 Chr. 29:5 ‒ lit. "to fill the hand" (idiom for priests, cf. Exod. 28:41; Lev. 8:33)
  3. in care of, 1 Chr. 29:8 ‒ lit. "under the hand of"
  4. pledged, 1 Chr. 29:24 ‒ lit. "put a hand under Solomon"

This imagery is used of God in 1 Chr. 29:12,14,16

  1. "in Your hand," 1 Chr. 29:12
  2. "from Your hand," 1 Chr. 29:14,16

SPECIAL TOPIC: HAND

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE

▣ "the craftsmen" This word (BDB 360) can refer to

  1. metal workers
  2. wood workers
  3. stone workers

Also note 1 Chr. 22:15, where specific craftsmen are mentioned.

▣ "willing" This VERB (BDB 621, KB 671) occurs often in this chapter (cf. 1 Chr. 29:5,6,9 [twice], 14,17 [twice]), more than any other context in the OT; only here in 1 Chronicles, and only once in 2 Chronicles (cf. 2 Chr. 17:16). It focuses on human choice and willingness to give to God. God's sovereignty is magnified in 1 Chr. 29:11-13, but 29:14-17 focuses on human free will.

In some ways this parallels the generosity related to

  1. the tabernacle ‒ Exod. 35:5,21,22,29
  2. the second temple ‒ Ezra 1:6; 2:68; 3:5

SPECIAL TOPIC: PREDESTINATION (CALVINISM) VS. HUMAN FREE WILL (ARMINIANISM)

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:6-9
6Then the rulers of the fathers' households, and the princes of the tribes of Israel, and the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, with the overseers over the king's work, offered willingly; 7and for the service for the house of God they gave 5,000 talents and 10,000 darics of gold, and 10,000 talents of silver, and 18,000 talents of brass, and 100,000 talents of iron. 8Whoever possessed precious stones gave them to the treasury of the house of the Lord, in care of Jehiel the Gershonite. 9Then the people rejoiced because they had offered so willingly, for they made their offering to the Lord with a whole heart, and King David also rejoiced greatly.

29:7 "darics" This (BDB 204, KB 232) is a rare word (here and Ezra 2:69; 8:27; Neh. 7:70-72). It could mean

  1. a Persian gold coin from
    1. Cyrus' days
    2. Darius' days
  2. an Assyrian word for a fraction of a mina
  3. another term for "drachma" (see Special Topic: Coins in Use in Palestine in Jesus' Day)

There were no coins in David's days, so, if it does refer to a later coin, it is an anachronism.

29:8 "Jehiel the Gershonite" This Levite is mentioned in 1 Chr. 23:8; 26:21 as son of Ladan, son of Gershon. Ladan may be the same as "Libni of 1 Chr. 6:17. He was in charge of the treasury.

There are eleven people in the OT with this name, which means "God is living" (BDB 313).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:10-13
10So David blessed the Lord in the sight of all the assembly; and David said, "Blessed are You, O Lord God of Israel our father, forever and ever. 11Yours, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, indeed everything that is in the heavens and the earth; Yours is the dominion, O Lord, and You exalt Yourself as head over all. 12Both riches and honor come from You, and You rule over all, and in Your hand is power and might; and it lies in Your hand to make great and to strengthen everyone. 13Now therefore, our God, we thank You, and praise Your glorious name."

29:10-22a This paragraph records David's

  1. blessing of YHWH
  2. admonition to Solomon (by implication, 1 Chr. 29:19)
  3. corporate worship, 1 Chr. 29:20-22
    1. blessing
    2. sacrifices
    3. feast

This prayer has similarities with two other Davidic prayers in 1 Chr. 16:8-36 and 17:16-27. Chronicles gives us the theology of King David!

Notice the inclusive theological affirmation of YHWH's greatness in this prayer. There are eleven "alls," BDB 481, cf. 1 Chr. 29:10,11 (twice), 12 (twice), 14,15,16,20 (twice), 21.

  1. The Father ‒ 1 Cor. 15:24,27
  2. The Son ‒ Matt. 11:27; 28:18; 1 Cor. 15:25,27; Eph. 1:22; Heb. 2:8-9

29:10 "David blessed the Lord" The VERB (BDB 138, KB 159) is used several times in this chapter.

  1. David blesses YHWH, 1 Chr. 29:10 (twice)
  2. the assembly is called on to bless YHWH, 1 Chr. 29:20 (twice)

YHWH is worthy of blessing (see Contextual Insights, D.).

SPECIAL TOPIC: BLESSING (OT)

▣ "O Lord God of Israel our father, forever" See several Special Topics.

  1. SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY, C. and D.
  2. SPECIAL TOPIC: ISRAEL (THE NAME)
  3. SPECIAL TOPIC: THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD
  4. SPECIAL TOPIC: FOREVER ('olam)

29:11 This verse reminds me of several prayers.

  1. This verse may be the OT source to Matt. 6:13b ("For Yours is the Kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen"), which was a later scribal addition to Jesus' prayer, probably as it began to be used in a liturgical manner.
  2. Paul's prayer or quoted hymn/liturgy of 1 Tim. 1:17
  3. Jude's closing prayer (i.e., Jude, vv. 24-25)
  4. The prayer of praise to the Lamb in Rev. 5:13 (also note Rev. 4:11; 5:12)

SPECIAL TOPIC: CHARACTERISTICS OF ISRAEL'S GOD (OT)

SPECIAL TOPIC: CHARACTERISTICS OF ISRAEL'S GOD (NT)

▣ "glory" This (BDB 802) can also mean "beauty" (cf. Isa. 3:18). It refers to "YHWH's "glorious name" in 1 Chr. 29:12 (cf. Isa. 63:14).

NASB, NKJV, NRSV, LXX  "the victory"
TEV, REB  "length of days"
NJB  "splendor"

This NOUN (BDB 664 I, KB 716 I) has several major meanings.

  1. victory in battle
  2. strength in battle ‒ Ps. 18:1; Lam. 3:18
  3. glory, splendor ‒ 1 Sam. 15:29
  4. duration ‒ Job 23:7; Ps. 74:3; Pro. 21:28; Isa. 34:10; Jer. 15:18; Dan. 7:18; Amos 1:11

All of these usages could fit this list of God's kingly attributes.

▣ "head over all" See SPECIAL TOPIC: MONOTHEISM.

29:12 "honor" This is the use of kabod (BDB 458, KB 455) in referring to humans. It denotes a position, civil/religious, of high standing in the community and/or wealth (cf. 1 Chr. 29:28; Gen. 31:1).

SPECIAL TOPIC: GLORY (kabod, OT)

29:13 "we thank You" See SPECIAL TOPIC: THANKSGIVING.

▣ "Your glorious Name" See SPECIAL TOPIC: GLORY (kabod, OT) and SPECIAL TOPIC: "THE NAME" OF YHWH (OT).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:14-19
14"But who am I and who are my people that we should be able to offer as generously as this? For all things come from You, and from Your hand we have given You. 15For we are sojourners before You, and tenants, as all our fathers were; our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no hope. 16O Lord our God, all this abundance that we have provided to build You a house for Your holy name, it is from Your hand, and all is Yours. 17Since I know, O my God, that You try the heart and delight in uprightness, I, in the integrity of my heart, have willingly offered all these things; so now with joy I have seen Your people, who are present here, make their offerings willingly to You. 18O Lord, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, our fathers, preserve this forever in the intentions of the heart of Your people, and direct their heart to You; 19and give to my son Solomon a perfect heart to keep Your commandments, Your testimonies and Your statutes, and to do them all, and to build the temple, for which I have made provision."

29:14 "all things come from You" This is the biblical worldview (cf 1 Chr. 29:12; Ps. 50:9-12; 1 Cor. 4:7; James 1:17). He owns everything and we are stewards (1 Chr. 29:16, "all is Yours").

29:15 Our earthly experience since the fall of Genesis 3 has been one of pain, suffering, unfairness, evil, and exploitation. This is not the world God intended it to be (see John Wenham, The Goodness of God).

The Israelites saw themselves as sojourners (BDB 59) and tenants (BDB 444), which may come from Lev. 25:23 or possibly Ps. 39:12; 119:19,54. Abraham (cf. Gen. 23:4) and Jacob (cf. Gen. 47:9) were sojourners and strangers in a foreign land. The Bible views God's people as pilgrims (cf. 1 Chr. 16:19-20). We are on the way to His eternal city (cf. Heb. 11:8-10; 12:22; 13:14).

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE FALL

▣ "our days on the earth are like a shadow" This imagery speaks of the temporary and transitory nature of human existence (cf. Job 14:1-2; Ps. 90:5-6; 102:11; 103:15-16; Isa. 40:6-8; 1 Pet. 1:24-25).

▣ "there is no hope" This is true if there is no God (cf. 1 Thess. 4:13). Usually this term (BDB 876 I) has God as the explicit object). It is not true for God's people (cf. Isa. 40:86; 55:6-12). He Himself is their hope.

It is possible (because it has no object here) that "no hope" refers to "no homeland," which is a continuation of the imagery of Israel as "strangers and sojourners."

The Peshitta has "For we are like the proverb of vapor and of the potter, and we are sojourners before You and a small people in the world, but You ruled over our fathers of old, and You commanded them the way they should walk and live."

29:16 "Your Holy Name" See SPECIAL TOPIC: THE HOLY ONE and SPECIAL TOPIC: "THE NAME" OF YHWH (OT).

▣ "all is Yours" See note at 1 Chr. 29:11.

29:17 "You try the heart" God tests humans' motives (cf. Job 7:18; 23:10; Ps. 7:9; 11:5; 17:31; 26:2; 66:10; 139:1,23. God knows the motives and intents of the human heart. Reward and judgment are possible because God knows the intent (cf. 1 Sam. 2:3; 16:7; 1 Kgs. 8:39; 1 Chr. 28:9; 2 Chr. 6:30; Job 13:9; Ps. 7:9; 33:15; 44:21; 139:1-4; Pro. 15:11; 21:2; 24:12; Jer. 11:20; 17:9-10; 20:12; Luke 16:15; Acts 1:24; 15:8; Rom. 8:27).

The Tyndale OT Commentary Series, vol. 10, p. 270, makes the point that the word "heart" appears five times in 1 Chr. 29:17-19.

SPECIAL TOPIC: GOD TESTS HIS PEOPLE (OT)

SPECIAL TOPIC: HEART

▣ "uprightness. . .integrity" Both of these English words translate the Hebrew root BDB 449, which is common in all ANE languages for God as a standard of ethical behavior. This same concept is expressed by "righteousness". David was not "sinless" or even always ethical but he was in relationship with YHWH. David had a wholly devoted heart (cf. Deut. 18:13; 1 Kgs. 8:61; 15:14; 2 Kgs. 28:3; 1 Chr. 20:9-10; 29:9,17-19; Isa. 38:3). This is theologically related to the NT concept of justification by grace through faith (i.e., Abraham, Gen. 15:6; Rom. 4:3; Gal. 3:6; and Israel, Exod. 4:5,31; 2 Chr. 20:20; Isa. 43:10).

Notice the word "reckoned" in Gen. 15:6 is used in 1 Chr. 29:18, translated by NASB as "intentions of the heart." These verses (i.e., 1 Chr. 29:17-19) integrate YHWH's sovereign grace and His people's obedience to His covenant. We need a perfect heart which leads to obedience (cf. 1 Chr. 28:8-9).

SPECIAL TOPIC: RIGHTEOUSNESS

SPECIAL TOPIC: BELIEVE, TRUST, FAITH, AND FAITHFULNESS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

SPECIAL TOPIC: FAITH, BELIEVE, TRUST (NT)

29:18-19 David asks YHWH these prayer requests.

  1. preserve this forever ‒ BDB 1036, KB 1581, Qal IMPERATIVE; the "this" could refer to
    1. the devotion of the Patriarchs (TEV, NET)
    2. God's purpose in calling the Patriarchs (NRSV, NJB, REB)
    3. God's promises to the Patriarchs (LXX, Peshitta, JPSOA)
    4. the Israelites remembering the Patriarchs
  2. direct their heart to You ‒ BDB 465, KB 464, Hiphil IMPERATIVE (possibly repeat of d. above)
  3. give Solomon a perfect heart to keep Your commandments ‒ BDB 678, KB 733, Qal IMPERATIVE; this was crucial, cf. 1 Chr. 28:8-9)

29:18 "the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel. . ."This verse surely expresses the heart of the Chronicler for the people of God of his day!

SPECIAL TOPIC: COVENANT PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:20
20Then David said to all the assembly, "Now bless the Lord your God." And all the assembly blessed the Lord, the God of their fathers, and bowed low and did homage to the Lord and to the king.

29:20 "all the assembly blessed the Lord" This involved inward devotion and trust as well as outward acts.

  1. speaking liturgy, prayers, or songs ‒ Jer. 33:3; Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21; Rom. 10:9-13
  2. bowing ‒ Gen. 24:26,48; Exod. 4:31; 12:27; 34:8; Num. 22:31; 2 Chr. 20:18; 29:30; Neh. 8:6

Notice they "worshiped" YHWH but "honored" the king (cf. Gen. 43:28; 1 Sam. 24:8; 1 Kgs. 1:14,31).

They are the same word (BDB 1005, KB 295) but with different connotations.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:21-22a
21On the next day they made sacrifices to the Lord and offered burnt offerings to the Lord, 1,000 bulls, 1,000 rams and 1,000 lambs, with their drink offerings and sacrifices in abundance for all Israel. 22So they ate and drank that day before the Lord with great gladness.

29:21 "they made sacrifices" 1 Kings 8:62-63 records the sacrifices at the dedication of Solomon's temple.

▣ "all Israel" This is the recurrent theme of Chronicles (cf. 1 Chr. 29:21,23,25,26). It reflects the historical reality and theological hope of the post-exilic period.

29:22a This describes a covenant meal which sealed the agreement or possibly better, "an ordination offering" (BDB 1023, KB 1536; cf. Exod. 29:19-34; Lev. 7:37; 8:22-33). Part of the "peace offering" was given to YHWH on the altar, part to the priests, and the rest was consumed by the community of faith.

SPECIAL TOPIC: SACRIFICIAL SYSTEMS OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:22b-25
22bAnd they made Solomon the son of David king a second time, and they anointed him as ruler for the Lord and Zadok as priest. 23Then Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord as king instead of David his father; and he prospered, and all Israel obeyed him. 24All the officials, the mighty men, and also all the sons of King David pledged allegiance to King Solomon. 25The Lord highly exalted Solomon in the sight of all Israel, and bestowed on him royal majesty which had not been on any king before him in Israel.

29:22b "a second time" 1 Kings 1:33-39 and 1 Chr. 23:1 record a previous hurried inauguration but this text records the official one.

This phrase is missing in the Septuagint, Peshitta, and Vulgate. This may imply

  1. a copyist error
  2. it was an addition
  3. different Hebrew manuscript was used
NASB, TEV, JPSOA  "ruler"
NKJV, NJB  "leader"
NRSV, REB  "prince"
LXX, Peshitta  "King"

This title (BDB 617) is used of

  1. Judah ‒ 1 Chr. 5:2
  2. Saul ‒ 1 Sam. 9:16; 10:1; 1 Chr. 11:2
  3. David ‒ 1 Sam. 13:14; 25:30; 2 Sam. 13:14; 25:30; 2 Sam. 6:21; 1 Chr. 17:7
  4. Solomon ‒ here; 1 Kgs. 1:35

▣ "Zadok" This faithful priest in David's day is now anointed as the only High Priest in Solomon's day. The other High Priest, Abiathar, who supported Solomon's rival, Adonijah, for the throne, was exiled by Solomon to his hometown of Anathoth (cf. 1 Kgs. 2:26-27). For a good brief summary, see NIDOTTE, vol. 4, pp. 1300-1306.

SPECIAL TOPIC: "ANOINTING" IN THE BIBLE

29:23 "the throne of the Lord" The throne of Israel belonged to YHWH (cf. 1 Sam. 8:7; 1 Chr. 28:5).

Solomon and all Judean kings were His earthly representatives.

29:24 Notice the people who recognize and affirm Solomon's succession.

  1. the officials (civic, religious, military)
  2. the mighty men (David's private mercenaries, cf. 1 Kgs. 1:8,10,38,44)
  3. the other royal sons of David (royal princes)

▣ "pledged" This is literally, "put a hand under Solomon." Similar idioms of loyalty using "hand" are found in Ezra 10:19; Lam. 5:6; Ezek. 17:18. See notes at 1 Chr. 29:5.

29:25 Keep in mind all the glory of Solomon is eclipsed by Jesus the ultimate son of David (cf. Luke 11:31)!

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:26-27
26Now David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel. 27The period which he reigned over Israel was forty years; he reigned in Hebron seven years and in Jerusalem thirty-three years.

29:27 The Chronicler does not mention that David reigned over Judah for only seven years and then over all Israel for thirty three (cf. 2 Sam. 5:4,5; 1 Kgs. 2:11; 1 Chr. 3:4). Here again the focus is on "all Israel."

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 29:28-30
28Then he died in a ripe old age, full of days, riches and honor; and his son Solomon reigned in his place. 29Now the acts of King David, from first to last, are written in the chronicles of Samuel the seer, in the chronicles of Nathan the prophet and in the chronicles of Gad the seer, 30with all his reign, his power, and the circumstances which came on him, on Israel, and on all the kingdoms of the lands.

29:28 David's death was not viewed as a tragedy, but a quiet close to a blessed life of service and devotion to God.

  1. long reign over united Israel
  2. long life (idiom implying "grey" hair, cf. Gen. 15:15 Jdgs. 8:32)
  3. full of days (cf. Gen. 25:8; 35:29; 1 Chr. 23:1; Job 42:17)
  4. prosperous life
  5. honorable life
  6. a son succeeded him
  7. he affected Israel and the surrounding nations (1 Chr. 29:30)

See several Special Topics.

  1. SPECIAL TOPIC: THE OLD TESTAMENT AS HISTORY
  2. SPECIAL TOPIC: OLD TESTAMENT HISTORIOGRAPHY COMPARED WITH NEAR EASTERN CULTURES
  3. SPECIAL TOPIC: OLD TESTAMENT NARRATIVE

For "seer" see SPECIAL TOPIC: PROPHETS (OT).

29:30 "and on all the kingdoms of the lands" This phrase occurs only in Chronicles (cf. 2 Chr. 12:8; 17:10; 20:29) and refers to the surrounding nations. YHWH's actions have always had "the nations" on His heart.

SPECIAL TOPIC: YHWH'S ETERNAL REDEMPTIVE PLAN

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought-provoking, not definitive.

  1. How is this chapter related to 1 Chr. 23:2 and 28:1?
  2. Why does 1 Chr. 28:4-6 emphasize YHWH's choice of Solomon?
  3. Why is the weight of precious metals different between 1 Chr. 29:7 and 22:14?
  4. How is 1 Chr. 29:11 linked to Jesus' model prayer of Matthew 6?
  5. Explain your understanding of the literary purpose of 1 Chr. 29:5.
  6. Does 1 Chr. 29:17-19 relate to 28:8-9?
  7. Is the covenant with Solomon conditional or unconditional?
  8. How is 1 Chr. 29:21 related to 1 Kgs. 8:62-63?
  9. What does "a second time" mean in 1 Chr. 29:22b?
  10. Does 1 Chr. 29:29 refer to lost books or the books of Samuel and Kings?

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